Paper Information

Journal:   GEOSCIENCES   SPRING 2016 , Volume 25 , Number 99; Page(s) 75 To 84.
 
Paper: 

BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOECOLOGY OF TURONIAN -SANTONIAN (SURGAH FORMATIOIN) IN SURGAH ANTICLINE SOUTHWEST OF ILAM BASED ON PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA

 
 
Author(s):  RAZIANI M., VAHIDINIA M.*, SADEGHI A.
 
* DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY, FACULTY OF SCIENCE, FERDOWSI UNIVERSITY OF MASHHAD, MASHHAD, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

This study on the planktonic foraminifera of the Surgah Formation was carried out .three biozones are proposed for the Late Turonian – Early Santonian interval in Surgah anticline (Southwest Ilam). Based on planktonic/benthonic foraminiferal ratios and “van der zwaan” equation, a general deepening of depositional environment is indicated from Late Turonian-Early Santonian ages.During the early late Turonian, A (deeper) upper bathyal environment of about 1000 m water depth is indicated (96-98% planktonic foraminifera, with a relatively large number of keeled and non-keeled specimens).The middle late to latest Turonian interval is characterized by 70-90% planktonic foraminifera with keeled specimens dominating and rarely none -keeled and very rarely heterohelix, pointing to an upper bathyal depositional environment (500 m water depth), eutrophication to oligotrophication conditions. During early Coniacian, water depth falling slowly and characterized by 65-80 planktonic foraminifera with keeled forms dominating, oligotrophication conditions. Then in late Coniacian water depth rising (1000 m water depth), none -keeling dominating that pointing to eutrophication conditions. A (shallow) upper bathyal environment (400 m water depth), dominated by keeling foraminifera, oligotrophication condition, during the early santonian, is indicated by 45-60% planktonic foraminifera but there are a short time of raising water depth before upper surgah that is indicated by 90% planktonic foraminifera, with dominated by nonekeeling foraminifera specimens, eutrophication condition. In general, an open marine deep water environment (upper bathyal) is indicated by the Late Turonian to early Santonian planktonic foraminiferal faunas, influenced by periods of eutrophication to oligotrophication repeatedly.

 
Keyword(s): PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA, BENTHONIC, TURONIAN-SANTONIAN, UPPER BATHYAL, EUTROPHIC, OLIGOTROPHIC
 
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