Paper Information

Journal:   TEHRAN UNIVERSITY MEDICAL JOURNAL (TUMJ)   MARCH 2016 , Volume 73 , Number 12; Page(s) 837 To 855.
 
Paper: 

MECHANISM OF ACTION AND APPLICATION OF VIROCIDS IN HEALTH CAREASSOCIATED VIRAL INFECTIONS

 
 
Author(s):  SHAHBAZ BABAK, NOROUZI MEHDI, TABATABAI HAMIDEH*
 
* DEPARTMENT OF VIROLOGY, SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, TEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Viruses are important causes of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Newer viruses are still being discovered. Apart from frequently causing infections in the general community, many types of viruses are significant nosocomial pathogens that with emerging viruses has become a real issue in medical field. There are specific treatments, vaccine and physical barrier to fight some of these infections. Health careassociated viral infections are an important source of patient’s morbidity and mortality.
The method of sterilization or disinfection depends on the intended use of the medical devices (comprising critical, semicritical and noncritical items) and failure to perform proper sterilization or disinfection of these items may leads to introduction of viruses, resulting in infection. Disinfection is an essential way in reducing or disruption of transmission of viruses by environmental surfaces, instruments and hands which achieves by chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, respectively. This review discusses about chemical agents with virocids properties (e.g. alcohols, chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, phenolic compounds, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, iodophor, ammonium compounds quaternary, bigunides and so on.), mechanisms of action and their applications in health care-associated viral infection control. As well as, we described an overview for hierarchy of viruses in challenge with disinfantans, effective agents on viral inactivation, i.e.targect viruses, viral stability or survival duration time in enviromental surfaces and hands. We explained disinfection of surfaces, challenges in emerging viral pathogens inactivation, viral resistance to chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. Because, there are laboratory studies and clinical evidences for some viruses which viral resistance to biocide or failure to perform proper disinfection can lead to infection outbreaks. Also, we described virucidal properties of antiseptics and introduced selected antiseptics with extensive virucidal action, because hands play an important role in the spread of many viral diseases, and regular proper hands hygiene is essential to decontaminate hands and can interrupt the spread of viruses. Here, we compared the currently available laboratory methods, standard methods from many countries and kinds of viruses in these methods for evaluation of virocide activity. Finally, it’s good to know: any disinfectant is not virocide unless it confirms by laboratory methods.

 
Keyword(s): ANTISEPTICS, CHEMICAL DISINFECTANT, DISINFECTION, HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTION, NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION, VIRUS INACTIVATION
 
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