Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES   2003 , Volume 12-13 , Number 44-45; Page(s) 155 To 176.
 
Paper: 

GENDER AND WAGE DISCRIMINATION IN CANADA

 
 
Author(s):  SAFIRI K.*
 
* 
 
Abstract: 
One of the countries that has achieved top rank in human development for several consecutive years in the past decade is Canada. The elimination of discrimination against women is one of the criteria. for development, and Canada has endeavored to abolish discrimination against women in this country. Nevertheless, wage discrimination is a problem that Still exists in this country. In the present research, first it was attempted to consider whether this discrimination exists or not? And if it exists, to what extent? Then to clarify the issue, two theoretical patterns, the human capital theory and the gender relations theory were utilized. The first theory explicates the phenomenon concerning individual differences, and the second theory has a structural approach in explaining the case, and identifies discrimination in the human relations structure. The results of the research showed that wage discrimination between men and women exists and that the rate of the same is 9.112 dollars annually. Taking in to consideration such factors as marriage age, minority status, academic years, annual working weeks (as an independent varianble), wage rate (as a dependant variable), and gender (as an intervening variable), the results proved that age had a direct relationship. Marriage brought about wage-increase for men and wage decrease for women. The minority status equally decreased the wage for men and women. Academic years increased the wage, but there was more increase for men rather than ;for women. Concerning the office, supervising positions often has been appointed to men; therefore, their wage average was higher than women. In respect to working weeks per year, men had approximately 2 more working weeks than women. According to the human capital theory presuming that women enjoy less human capital than men (education and working weeks annually) it seems that the 2% difference in education-average and the two more annual working weeks for men cant explain the 9.112 dollars wage-difference. But in the gender relation theory which has a structural approach, it seems that the job structure for employing men and women is the way that men are taken in to service for higher positions and consequently shall earn higher wages, while employers appoint women for lower positions. Thus the wage-discrimination in Canada cant be explained with the individual-differences approach but, rather through the gender-relations approach.
 
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