Paper Information

Journal:   DESERT (BIABAN)   2003 , Volume 8 , Number 1; Page(s) 63 To 87.
 
Paper: 

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF UPPER RED FORMATION ON DEVELOPMENT OF TUNNELING EROSION LANDFORMS

 
 
Author(s):  KARIMPOUR RAYHAN M., MASHHADI N., ZAHMATKESH GH.A.
 
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Abstract: 

Kuh-e-Sorkh is located in Southwestern Semnan, Iran. The bedrock of this region is formed from upper red formation and includes fine and evaporative grain. Due to water erosion, various erosion shapes have been developed. One of the most interesting and rarest erosions is tunneling erosion or piping. Among these, pseudokarsts have a simple structure with V-shaped holes in various dimensions. In addition, there is an underground drainage network that is connected to the surface drainage network. Although the appearance of these structures is simple, their formation mechanism seems to be complex. Factors influencing their formation are as follows. Bed rock: lithology, aggregation (compounds) diagnosis, concentration and salts, clay types and mechanical attributes of the bed rock as follows. Soil: texture, structure, amount of salts, leaching, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Physiography: slope, aspect, elevation and hydraulic gradient slope. Climate: precipitation, temperature, precipitation and climatic changes. Biotic: human impact, livestock trampling and vegetation destruction. The effects of the above factors are not identical in formation of pseudokarsts, rather the two most effective ones are soil texture and chemical properties such as pH, EC, ESP, SAR that were subject of this investigation. In addition, field observations were taken into account in studying pseudokarst formation. The results showed that development of pseudokarsts is primarily affected by soil texture where percentage of silt particle is greater than clay and sand particles and pseudokarsts are more expanded. Thus, salts and chemical formation were considered secondary to pseudokarst formation. Further, there was a relationship between EC and SAR. Field samples revealed higher SAR content and variable amounts of EC. This indicates the important role of SAR in pseudokarst expansion without considering EC.

 
Keyword(s): DRAINAGE NETWORK, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, HYDRAULIC SLOPE, PIPING EROSION, PSEUDOKARST FORMATION, TUNNELING EROSION
 
References: 
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