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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES IN ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE   SUMMER 2014 , Volume 1 , Number 3; Page(s) 29 To 45.
 
Paper: 

AN ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

 
 
Author(s):  ZOLFAGHARZADEH HASSAN*
 
* FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, IMAM KHOMEINI INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY
 
Abstract: 

Researchers and experts have employed various approaches in dealing with Islamic Architecture. Architects, scholars, designers, mystics and philosophers have interpreted this phenomenon in their particular ways over time. Some merely have considered historical descriptive methods as an outward expression.
Sometimes these descriptions and analysis aim at definition of spaces and architectural elements and at times an architectural description of different eras of governments from a historical point of view has been carried out such as Pope, Groop, and Herzfeld.
Architectural works have usually been examined with the use of historical analysis; unfortunately some of these analyses have digressed from the truth of the subject for not being familiar enough with the principles, values, and percepts of Islam and its relation to architecture. Pope, Papadopoulos and others have analyzed Islamic Architectural works over history belong to this group.
Few of these historians such as Papadopoulos in his book titled The Islamic Architecture has concluded that there is no such a thing as Islamic Architecture; it is in fact a combination of Greek and Byzantine architecture.
He introduces the Damascus mosque as an example that is take from the Byzantine architecture; such analysis as Papadopoulos are to a great extend simple and shallow since they lack any scientific value and credibility.
Some others have utilized a philosophical view or in other words have examined the subject with an ontological or epistemological perspective. Philosophy means knowledge of the facts of beings to the point of one’s capability and its applicability. Other characteristics of philosophy are general. Various references can be made to what general is. It is the opposite of details which for instance, the concept of architecture, square, and garden can be referred to. However, generality has only one place and it is in man’s mind and wisdom. Nevertheless, general is external and objective.
Others have used logic which is the tools of orthodoxy of man in relation to subjects. The logical approach of using the mind is to gain knowledge. Logic includes analogy, induction, and world of ideas. They have attended the Islamic Architecture using these logics. It should be noted that Islamic Architecture has mostly benefited from world of ideas or in other from form and concept. Form signifies the appearance of an artistic and architectural work that can be heard (music) or read (writing). Concept is meaning, logic, purpose, objective, reference, interpretation, and what form or word signifies. Form and concept in architecture is concerned with tangibility and rationality (oversensivity) and architectural form signifies that meaning and concept conveying the architect’s meaning.
Some researchers have also found the roots of valuable works of Islamic Architecture in the past teachings.
With training the architect (student-teacher based), they have dealt with the formation of Islamic Architecturethat is how students are trained and disciplined and how their teachings have led to unparalleled works. Letters in magnanimity are the foundations of such discussion. The basis of this approach, in addition to interest and talent of the student, are refinement, construction of the soul and from world loss. The manifestation of God’s spirit is in them and in turn learning its terms. Thus, primarily, the student should be committed to be well mannered, have high understanding and be physically able.
Scholars have also benefited from generalization in studying the Islamic Architecture. Each group consists of objective, basis, and factors. In this study, the objective of Islamic Architecture is elevation and ascent in the living spaces. Basis is the cause of the research; therefore, its principles should be looked at through religious, philosophical, and scientific outlooks. Its factors should be found in more general categories of the Islamic Architecture. With the three mentioned outlooks as the basis of subjects in the Islamic Architecture, and through examination of the factors, objectives, and domain of the subject, a comprehensive perspective is formed according to the capacity of the designer. Religious point of view studies the religious insight, moral ethics, and religious percepts, embracing all the ontological subjects in regard to common concepts and domain of the knowledge. The philosophical point of view questions why, what, and how to achieve a logical word from the external world. Knowledge about the subject is formed logically in the world of mind. The scientific point of view employs the experiences gained from a specialized subject in Islamic Architecture over the time. In this phase, the subject is divided into internal and external strategy where each should be taken into consideration.
The aim of this article is to brows different approaches toward Islamic Architecture with their analysis.
Undoubtedly, each approach pays attention to limited boundary of knowledge in accordance to Islamic Architecture realm. Certainly researchers in Islamic Architecture are knowledgeable in their choice of approach in analysis and research. Here, the important point is that to what extent does the researcher and scholar in Islamic Architecture aims to gain knowledge over the subject? Relying on the mentioned methods we can gain dominance over its perspectives, zone, and development. The questions of the present research are as follow: Are there different methods to understand Islamic Architecture? What are different approaches towards Islamic Architecture? To what extend does knowledge of Islamic Architecture take place.
The method of research in Islamic Architecture is first through brief descriptions of these outlooks followed by an analytical, comparative, and synthesis, using proofs and documents. Finally the argument is examined and concluded with a systematic method.

 
Keyword(s): ISLAM, ARCHITECTURE, DESCRIPTIVE, ANALYTIC, DIDACTIC, PHILOSOPHIC
 
References: 
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