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Paper Information

Journal:   IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH   SEPTEMBER 2014 , Volume 43 , Number 9; Page(s) 1204 To 1211.
 
Paper: 

SALT TOXICITY (SODIUM INTAKE): A SERIOUS THREAT TO INFANTS AND CHILDREN OF PAKISTAN

 
 
Author(s):  WASEEM AMIR, NAFEES MUHAMMAD, MURTAZA GHULAM*, SAJJAD ASHIF, MEHMOOD ZAHID, SIDDIQI ABDUL RAUF
 
* DEPT. OF PHARMACY
 
Abstract: 

Background: Excess sodium intake can lead to hypertension, the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and potassium contents of foodstuff used by infants and children of Pakistan.
Methods: We analyzed the sodium and potassium contents of infant milk formula (<6 months), follow up milk formula (>6 months), baby food (cereals), biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps), cheese puffs, roasted cereals (salty), ice cream cones (kulfi) all of which are the processed food extensively used by the children. The amount of sodium and potassium contents in drinking water of few cities of Pakistan were also considered to assess the additional sodium/ potassium in the preparation of milk using infant milk formula.
Results: Na to K ratio (Na: K) was determined 0.3-1.23, 0.3-1.16, 0.33-0.82, 0.54-2.68, 0.51-0.85, 2.86 and 1.02 for infant milk formula (<6 months), follow up milk formula (>6 months), baby food (cereals), biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps, cheese puffs, roasted cereals), ice cream cones (kulfi), respectively.
Conclusion: The higher sodium content is present than most of the quoted values; whereas lower potassium is present than the recommended values. The higher Na: K ratio indicates the severity of the situation where it is commonly stated that “higher an individual’s salt intake, the higher an individual?s blood pressure”. Present study indicates that nearly all Pakistani children consume substantially more salt than they need which will affect health status in later life.

 
Keyword(s): IETARY INTAKE, INFANT MILK FORMULA, NA/K RATIO, HYPERTENSION
 
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