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Paper Information

Journal:   HOVIATESHAHR   SPRING 2014 , Volume 8 , Number 17; Page(s) 35 To 44.
 
Paper: 

UNDERGROUND SPACES IN ARID CLIMATE ARCHITECTURE OF IRAN

 
 
Author(s):  KHODABAKHSHIAN MEGHEDY*, MOFIDI SHEMIRANI SEYED MAJID
 
* DEPARTMENT OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE AND RESEARCH BRANCH, ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

The subterranean habitat is the oldest form of shelter known to humans that could be traced back to the cave age. This architectural approach is being used in different parts of the world through the new technology. During the oil crisis interest in underground architecture was considered as an attempt to live a comfort and safe life. Despite the progress made by the architects in developing special systems for the above ground buildings, the underground construction has not been fully explored. Iran has some outstanding vernacular underground buildings that could be investigated and lessons learned from. This article examines the underground spaces in the vernacular architecture of the arid climates in Iran, which include residential buildings, courtyards, cisterns and ice-pits. All of these structural properties fit to the climatic aspect with respect to the vernacular architecture of Iran in arid climate in addition to applied space. Use of traditional underground building with no changes in the new application is not objective. But it is modelled to optimize the quality of environmental science and conservation of energy resources as possible and it can be presented for various climates in order to design optimal spaces which would increase the sustainability of the environment. Unlike spending a lot of energy for heating and cooling the contemporary buildings through modern architecture, the vernacular building is free from that. Most of the numerous advantages of underground structures, especially those concerning the protection of environment cannot be assessed easily in terms of monetary value. For evaluation of under-over ground structures one should not limit the comparison to the cost and the life span aspect in specific, but should consider environmental benefits that an underground building could provide. These days the underground buildings could be competing with super-insulated buildings. Iranian architecture are influenced by the following principles since beginning, the concrete reflection of which is evident even today: Folkloric, to avoid wastage, Static, Self-sufficiency, and Introversion. The green process indicates that all issues are interdependent and any decision should be reviewed with respect to all aspects, thus idea of separated principles contradicts the green process. On different principles, there are many common points. Considering the measures would create a balance in green architecture: Energy conservation, Adapting to Climate, Reduce the use of new resources, Respect to users, Entire site integrity. Since the underground space construction in Iran has observed all domestic architectural principles in hot and arid climate, it can be considered as an inseparable element of Iranian architecture. This fact is in complete agreement with the predetermined and pre-planned aspects of the human through then which was able to respect to the welfare and comfort, something that prevails in today's contemporary green architecture. The partial underground structure has always been a part of buildings in Iran due to climatic conditions and a supplementary to the over ground structure. The underground space architecture corresponds to the principles of Iranian architecture and that of the green architecture; therefore, it can be called a part of green architecture in Iran.

 
Keyword(s): UNDERGROUND ARCHITECTURE, ARID CLIMATE, IRAN
 
References: 
  • ندارد
 
  Persian Abstract Yearly Visit 128
 
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