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Paper Information

Journal:   HOVIATESHAHR   SPRING 2014 , Volume 8 , Number 17; Page(s) 77 To 86.


Author(s):  DIZANI EHSAN*

Naghsh Jahan Square in Isfahan city is an evolved pattern of Shah Squares in Safavid era. Such a pattern was not emerged at once and it has roots in the first (Tabriz) and second (Qazvin) capital cities of Safavid era. Time priority, anatomic changes and lack of field evidences in Shah squares of Tabriz and Qazvin, has concealed this evolution trend. Hence, knowing about Shah squares preceding Naghsh Jahan square, based on historical texts and documents and knowing their similarities and differences, allows us to find out the Shah Squares evolution trend. As the research method is historical-interpretive, findings obtained after carrying out comparative study on specifications of Shah Squares in capital cities of Safavid era can be explained through deduction and analysis of historical texts and documents.
Specifications of main application and main access ways have shown a fix trend in Shah Squares of Safavid Capital Cities. Evolutional specifications are explained in details below. Shah Squares of Qazvin and Isfahan were primary in their design. The architectural elements of square borders which had been various in Shah Square of Tabriz and had been formed gradually became limited in Shah Squares of Qazvin and Isfahan in application and in number and were formed contemporary to the time the squares were formed. In the first (Tabriz) capital city, Shah square lacked side walls, the second (Qazvin) had side walls and the third (Isfahan) one not only had side walls, but also was built in two floors. The second floor was intended to be used for a special application. In Shah Squares of Qazvin and Isfahan, the geometrical ratio was 3 over one. Natural elements (water and plant system) were also included in the second (Qazvin) and third (Isfahan) capital cities. A contrastive comparison of the trend of Shah square specifications in each of Safavid capital cities, most of extracted specifications showed a fix or evolutional trend. Specifications of variable trend include the square names and the time of formation. Evidently, these specifications have varied based on time and place. However, there is another reason for the variable trend of dimensional specifications of Shah Squares. On one hand, following to construction of shah square in Tabriz, limitation was imposed on the lateral elements and on the other hand the time limitation in execution led to smaller dimensions in the primary design. Depending on the experience gained from construction of Shah square in Qazvin and having a sufficient time, Shah square of Isfahan was built in bigger dimensions and with a more complete design. Hence, the variable trend of specifications of shah square dimensions revealed to be evolutionary.
Thus, justifying variable specifications, the whole specifications stated proved to be fix or evolutionary. The trend of changes conveys usage of previous experiences and reveals adaptation with conditions and developing them due to importance of Shah Square Model as a basis. In other words, a contrastive comparison of the trends shows that the evolutional trend has existed in Shah square model of Safavid capital cities.

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