Paper Information

Journal:   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM (IJEM)   JULY 2014 , Volume 12 , Number 3; Page(s) 1 To 6.
 
Paper: 

BODY COMPOSITION PROFILE OF YOUNG PATIENTS WITH PHENYLKETONURIA AND MILD HYPERPHENYLALANINEMIA

 
 
Author(s):  DOULGERAKI ARTEMIS*, SKARPALEZOU ASTRINIA, THEODOSIADOU ARETI, MONOPOLIS IOANNIS, SCHULPIS KLEOPATRA
 
* INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH, CHILDRENS HOSPITAL, ATHENS, GREECE
 
Abstract: 

Background: There is evidence in support of low bone density in young patients with disorders of phenylalanine metabolism; however, little is known about muscle and fat mass in these patients, especially in those with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (mHPA).
Objectives: We aimed to evaluate body composition of children and adolescents with early-diagnosed disorders of phenylalanine metabolism.
Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in the Institute of Child Health, which is the national center that performs newborn screening. Bone, muscle, and fat mass of 48 patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and 32 patients with mild mHPA, aged five to 18 years, were compared to 57 age- and sex-matched controls. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for this purpose.
Results: Compared to controls, bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in patients with PKU (mean total body BMD z score, 0.11; P = 0.03) and in those with mild mHPA (mean lumbar BMD z score, -0.34; P = 0.01). Lean body mass and fat mass were not significantly affected in the study group. Comparison between the two patients groups did not reveal any difference in body composition profiles; however, pubertal status appeared important for within-group comparisons. Fat mass was significantly increased in teenagers with PKU, which was more evident in those with poor dietary compliance irrespective of gender (fat mass z score, 0.66; P = 0.018). Finally, positive correlations were found not only between bone, muscle, and fat mass in both groups, but also between fat mass and Phenylalanine levels in patients with PKU (r, 0.46; P = 0.001).
Conclusions: Bone mineral density appears suboptimal in young patients with disorders of phenylalanine metabolism. Adolescents seemed more prone to obesity, especially when their dietary adherence was poor, whereas muscle mass was not considerably affected. To ensure healthier bones and less fat content, close follow-up as well as proper lifestyle advice is needed.

 
Keyword(s): MUSCLE, BONE, PHENYLALANINE, CHILDREN
 
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