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Paper Information

Journal:   NAGHSH MAYEH   MARCH 2013 , Volume 5 , Number 14; Page(s) 41 To 50.
 
Paper: 

THE STUDY ON EUROPEANS’ ITINERARIES IN SAFAVID AND ZAND ERA WITH AN APPROACH OF PATTERNS AND DESIGNS ANALYSIS ON PERSEPOLIS GATE OF ALL NATIONS

 
 
Author(s):  ESLAMI TAHEREH, MEHRPOUYA HOSSEIN, MEHRAFARIN REZA
 
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Abstract: 

The following research tries to study on the oldest images of winged bulls of Gate of all Nations in Europeans’ itineraries who have travelled to Iran for different reasons during Safavid and Zand era. Available records show that these tourists had reports and images with themselves which includes some wrong and imaginary information. This research is descriptive analytic type which is based on library sources and data analysis that tries to study on the reasons which led to drawing these images incorrectly.
Findings indicate different and unusual images of winged bulls of Gate of all Nations in their reports were not real and affected by western culture and many other factors. The variety of images during Safavid and Zand era represents the visitors’ attitudes and the growing trend of archaeological illustrations which have of a great value by themselves due to their age.
Winged bull or Lamassu in Near East mythology had a symbolic meaning which installed on sides of palaces’ gates and temples. These statues are a combination of human head, body of bull, wings of eagle and sometimes lion feet which embody four elements and combination of physical, intellectual, natural and supernatural powers. The interpretation of these mythical entities combination is the accumulation of human thoughts and spirit that controls its animal instincts, ambition of eagle or falcon, blessing and strength of bull and power and justice of lion.
One of the most significant signs of these mythical entities in Persepolis Gate are observed in sculpture architecture which includes a pair of huge bulls on western doorway and a pair of huge winged human-headed bulls (Lamassus) on the Eastern entry.

 
Keyword(s): WINGED BULL, GATE OF ALL NATIONS, PERSEPOLIS, ITINERARY, SAFAVID ERA, ZAND ER
 
References: 
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