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Paper Information

Journal:   BINA   FALL 2012 , Volume 18 , Number 1 (70); Page(s) 75 To 83.
 
Paper: 

TOXIC AND NUTRITIONAL OPTIC NEUROPATHY

 
 
Author(s):  AZARMINA M.*, AZARMINA H.
 
* OPHTHALMIC RESEARCH CENTER, SHAHID BEHESHTI UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Toxic optic neuropathy (TON) is a group of medical disorders which can be defined by visual impairment due to optic nerve damage by a toxin. The exposure to a toxic substance can occur at the workplace, with ingestion of materials/ foods containing a toxin, or the use of systemic medications. TON is a disease entity which is not only under-diagnosed, but also often diagnosed at a stage when recovery of vision is not possible. Both genders and all races are equally affected, and all ages are susceptible. This article gives an overview of common causes, clinical features, and management of TON.

 
Keyword(s): TOXIC OPTIC NEUROPATHY, METHANOL, OPTIC ATROPHY
 
 
References: 
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Citations: 
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+ Click to Cite.
APA: Copy

AZARMINA, M., & AZARMINA, H. (2012). TOXIC AND NUTRITIONAL OPTIC NEUROPATHY. BINA, 18(1 (70)), 75-83. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=277036



Vancouver: Copy

AZARMINA M., AZARMINA H.. TOXIC AND NUTRITIONAL OPTIC NEUROPATHY. BINA. 2012 [cited 2021July25];18(1 (70)):75-83. Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=277036



IEEE: Copy

AZARMINA, M., AZARMINA, H., 2012. TOXIC AND NUTRITIONAL OPTIC NEUROPATHY. BINA, [online] 18(1 (70)), pp.75-83. Available: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=277036.



 
 
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