Paper Information

Journal:   IRANIAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY   FALL 2007- WINTER 2008 , Volume 6 , Number 19-20; Page(s) 113 To 126.
 
Paper:  THE EVALUATION OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION USAGE IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF SPINAL LESIONS COMPLICATION
 
Author(s):  ESLAMI AMIN, POOYAN MOHAMMAD, ESLAMI VAHID
 
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Abstract: 
The natural electricity in the body carries signals back and forth between central and peripheral nervous systems. The signals carry the electrical commands that cause voluntary muscle to contract. In spinal cord injury (SCI) that these motor signals are missed, electrical stimulation applied near the muscle or nerve can be substitute artificially. It is estimated that the annual incidence of SCI is approximately forty cases per million populations. In SCI, damage to spinal cord result in complete or partial loss of movement (paralysis) and feeling. The amount of paralysis depends on where and how severe the damage is. The application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in patients with spinal cord injury is categorized as functional or therapeutic and is called functional electrical stimulation (FES). Sometimes the primary purpose of FES does not involve moving muscles. In such cases, the primary purpose may be to prevent or treat problems that arise because of SCI. These problems are called secondary complications.
Generally, applications of electrical stimulation in SCI include: 1- cardiovascular exercise 2- breathing assistance 3- Cough assistance 4-grasping 5- bladder & bowel control (incontinence) 6- Transfer & standing 7- stepping and walking 8- erection & electro ejaculation 9-improving circulation 10- preventing or treating pressure sores 11- controlling spasticity 12- preventing or treating contractures 13- preventing or treating osteoporosis 14- treating weak muscles 15- restoring sensation 16- regaining voluntary functions
 
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