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Paper Information

Journal:   ADVANCES IN COGNITIVE SCIENCE   WINTER 2008 , Volume 9 , Number 4 (36); Page(s) 33 To 49.
 
Paper: 

PERSONALITY AND IMPULSIVITY TRAITS IN SMOKERS WITH REGARD TO DEGREE OF NICOTINE DEPENDENCE

 
 
Author(s):  REZVANFARD MEHRNAZ, EKHTIARI HAMED, MOKRI AZARAKHSH, KAVIANI HOSSEIN
 
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Abstract: 
Objective: According to the orbitofrontal dysfunction theory, tobacco use is associated with particular character traits including extraversion, impulsivity, risk taking, sensation seeking and monotony avoidance, novelty seeking and psychopathic and antisocial personality.
Furthermore, impulsivity is often explained in terms of delay discounting; the tendency to choose smaller, relatively immediate rewards over larger but more delayed rewards.
Method: A total number of 89 male medical students including 30 non-smokers and 59 smokers participated in this study. Using the modified Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (mFTQ) the smokers were then classified into two groups: students with high nicotine dependence including 22 subjects and students with low nicotine dependence including 37 subjects. The students were then assessed using questionnaires such as Beck Depression Inventory, Cattle Anxiety Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Barratt' s Impulsiveness Scale, and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale and behavioral tasks such as Delay Discounting Choice Task and Balloon Analogue Risk Task.
Results: The comparison of the three groups showed a significant difference based on measures such as Beck Depression Inventory Score (p<0.05) and sub measures such as total score of Barratt' s Impulsiveness Scale (p<0.05), Motor Impulsivity (p<0.05) Venturesomenes (p<0.01), Impulsivity (p<0.01), total score of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (p<0.01), Thrill and Adventure Seeking (p<0.01), Experience Seeking (p<0.01), Disinhibition (p<0.01), Novelty Seeking (p<0.01), Loss of Self Direction (p<0.05), and Loss of Persistence (p<0.05). Also, smokers with high dependence showed a steeper decline in Delay- Discounting Task than non-smokers.
Conclusion: In the final analysis, Beck Depression Inventory Score, and subscales such as total score of Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale, Motor Impulsivity, Venturesomenes, Impulsiviyty, total score of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Novelty Seeking had an effective role in the prediction of high nicotine dependence. Also, venturesomeness and total score of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale play an important role in the prediction of low nicotine dependence.
 
Keyword(s): CIGARETTE SMOKING, NICOTINE DEPENDENCE, IMPULSIVITY, RISK TAKING BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY CHARACTERS
 
References: 
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