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Paper Information

Journal:   HOUSING AND RURAL ENVIRONMENT   FALL 2011 , Volume 30 , Number 135; Page(s) 23 To 42.



Nowadays energy conservation in all building sector is one of the basic requirements of the government. It has a dual importance in rural housing because of their shortage in energy sources and family budget in comparison with cities. Low level of life style in rural areas, being far from urban facilities, transportation problems, livelihood shortages and, make this necessity multiple. According to the research that had been carried out in "Housing Foundation of Islamic Revolution" by the name of "Energy Saving Methods in Rural Housing of Gilan Province", four climatic zones have been recognized. Shore and plane land zone with moderate and humid climate, High land zone with semi cold and humid climate, Humid Mountainous zone and semi arid mountainous zone with cold climate. In this research it was found that in old rural settlements of Gilan-there was no modem facilities in using mechanical systems, therefore special vernacular strategies for every climatic zone was performed in architecture to provide thermal comfort in building. Some similar local climatic strategies in different zones show that in spite of four climatic zones, there are three architectural zones in Gilan which are: shore / plane land zone, mountainous humid zone, mountainous semi arid zone. These strategies are based on design, materials and construction methods which are supporting thermal comfort inside the house in addition to guard the building from harmful climatic phenomena.
Therefore, vernacular architecture of rural housing has provided energy conservation and preserving environment with the lowest use of fossil energy. These characteristics have made the rural architecture of this province an obvious example of sustainable architecture. According to the mentioned field study this article will introduce the climatic zones of Gilan and architectural strategies which have been used in vernacular rural housing in every architectural zone. Then according to this knowledge, the climatic architectural indicators for energy saving in rural housing will be provided for each recognized architectural zones. Research method in this study is based on two different data: 1- The meteorology data of 23 existed meteorology stations. in Gilan province.
These data will give a prediction of the climatic condition of different parts of the region. The needed data are temperature, humidity, wind, precipitation, freezing days and etc.2- The information of the villages that are far from the meteorology stations. This information is gathered by field study which is used as a complementary for the station data to analyze local climatic conditions and to recognize the climatic zones. Field study data are climatic, geographic and cultural data of 139 selected villages that are gathered by the questionnaire and 80 villages that are gathered from library resources.
Finally, climatic indicators are explored for designing low energy rural houses in each architectural zone. This information is provided in two main groups. The first one is the general subjects such as architectural space arrangement, shape and texture of the settlement, buildings' accumulation, neighborhood conditions, building characteristics, mass and void size and relationship. The other group is the secondary elements such as open, semi open and indoor space characteristics, opening and envelops materials and construction technology of the building.

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