Paper Information

Journal:   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FERTILITY AND STERILITY   SUMMER 2012 , Volume 6 , Number SUPPLEMENT 1; Page(s) 115 To 115.
 
Paper: 

THE FATE OF MOTHERHOOD, FETUSES AND NEONATES IN DRUG ADDICTED PREGNANT WOMEN

 
 
Author(s):  NAMAZI M., AMANI R.*
 
* DEPARTMENT OF MIDWIFERY, SCHOOL OF NURSING AND MIDWIFERY, SHAHID BEHESHTI UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 
Background: Pregnancy in opioid-dependent women is a major public health issue. According to a national household survey in 2001, 3.7% of pregnant women in the United States used illicit drugs. In 2009 this number increased to 4.5%. Women who are afflicted by opioid addiction form a highly vulnerable group of patients frequently facing unplanned pregnancy with adverse outcomes including perinatal complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of addiction on the fetus, and neonatal life in pregnant women.
Materials and Methods: For this review, computerized literature searches of Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct and SID were conducted. The search included 20 articles in English from January 2006 to December 2011.
Results: According to the search, due to inappropriate effects of opioids on female reproductive system, addicted women frequently develop (face) unplanned pregnancies, leading to irregular menstruation or amenorrhea.
Additionally, chaotic lifestyles associated with drug abuse often foster insufficient birth control measures and consequently unexpected pregnancies. In fact, the rate of unintended pregnancies has been found to range between 80% and 90% among opioid-dependent women.
The addicted mothers manifested significantly greater levels of complications such as placental abruption, preterm labor, preeclampsia, hypertension, PROM, cesarean, hepatitis B, meconium in the amniotic fluid, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, anomalies in infant, low Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes, fetal death, hypoglycemia, neonatal convulsions, breathing problems, RDS, need to neonatal resuscitation, admission in NICU, more neonatal deaths, weight loss, and low circumference neonatal head size.
Conclusion: Opioid-dependent pregnant women form a highly vulnerable group of patients with many unplanned pregnancy.
The fetus and newborn in such women develop serious complications.
 
Keyword(s): PREGNANCY, ADDICTION, NEONATE AND FETUS
 
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