Paper Information

Journal:   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FERTILITY AND STERILITY   SUMMER 2011 , Volume 5 , Number SUPPLEMENT 1; Page(s) 16 To 16.
 
Paper: 

FEMALE INFERTILITY: UTERINE FACTORS ARE IMPORTANT FOR SUCCESSFUL EMBRYO TRANSFER AFTER IVF

 
Author(s):  MOINI A.*
 
* DEPARTMENT OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND FEMALE INFERTILITY, REPRODUCTIVE BIOMEDICINE CENTER, ROYAN INSTITUTE FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOMEDICINE, A.C.E.C.R., TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Embryo transfer (ET) is the final and most crucial step of the IVF procedure, characterized by a close collaboration between the clinician and the embryologist. Several studies have shown improvement in clinical pregnancy rates resulting from a focus on different aspects of the gentle embryo transfer technique. Issues such as impact of physician’s experience, trial transfer, catheter type, embryo deposition site, ultrasound-guided transfer, catheter loading techniques, routine antibiotics, removing cervical mucus before ET, use of tenaculum, bed rest, acupuncture and drugs to induce uterine relaxing.
Since the final outcome is influenced by blood/ mucus, uterine contractions, and retained embryos, which in turn depends upon individual technical skills, it is likely that the clinician’s experience has an impact. Gentle automatic transfer refers to two important factors avoiding damage to the endometrium and unwanted uterine contractions. To prevent unwanted uterine contractions, some precautions should be taken such as using a soft catheter, avoiding touching uterine fondus, avoid using a tenaculum. Such stimulation of the cervix may provoke uterine contractions originating from a provoked release of oxytocin. Removing cervical mucus or flushing the cervical canal before ET has gained some focus in the literature, so far, the optimal embryo transfer protocol is not known.

 
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