Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES) (TOWSEE ROSTAEI)   SPRING-SUMMER 2010 , Volume 1 , Number 2 (37); Page(s) 23 To 45.
 
Paper: 

FUTURE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS SUSTAINABILITY CHALLENGES

 
 
Author(s):  VOSOUGHI MANSOUR, IMANI ALI*
 
* UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN
 
Abstract: 

Rural development, along with other social and economical fields of study, has experienced different theoretical challenges. This paper, with a theoretical approach, has investigated some of these challenges and analyzed the future perspective of rural development. The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analyze the rural development approaches and to visualize the future perspective of some of the modern approaches in rural development. Thus, our method would be documental and critical study of the present approaches and theories of rural development. From 1970s, following the critical and theoretical challenges proposed from dependence schools, post modernism, feminism and social constructivism against common renovation school, rural field become prominent in rural resistant development framework. Moreover, one of the other factors in the extended rural development program and ignorance of common rural development programs is its common historical background with resistant development and environmentalism. These two theoretical fields, because of many conceptual commonalities, were integrated and developed a new paradigm called rural resistant development with an emphasis on methods that are people-oriented and aboriginal. Thus, resistance development means a development that is not environmentally destructive and it is technically suitable, economically resistant and socially acceptable. Rural development perspective encounters some challenges that may lead to the end of rural development in its classical concept. Here we have considered some of these challenges like villages and cities structures both from sociologists' challenges to rural developmental issues, and some of the other challenges that have directed the socio-classical analysis of rural development toward environmentalism and geography. Other issues like the contrast of villages and cities in their traditions may result in an informational gap between them that its negative consequences may be more severe than the contrast in industrial era, because transfer of technique in industrial era is easier than the transfer of knowledge in post-industrial and informational societies. The hidden idealism in the resistance perspective has also changed this paradigm to ideology of some movements in developed countries and this may reduce its implementation application role.

 
Keyword(s): RURAL RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT, RESISTANCE CHALLENGES, GLOBALIZATION, ENVIRONMENTALISM, REFORM
 
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