Paper Information

Journal:   HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA (HONAR-HA-YE-TAJASSOMI)   SPRING 2010 , Volume - , Number 41; Page(s) 33 To 38.
 
Paper: 

THE INFLUENCE OF TABRIZI ARTISTS ON ADVENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISTANBUL SCHOOL

 
 
Author(s):  AZHAND Y.*
 
* DEPARTMENT OF GRAPHIC AND FOTOGRAPHY, COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

It is true, it is true, and the arts of book book in Ottoman times drew their initial inspiration from those of Iran. In some of the associated specialities, for example in most Qur’anic illumination and in the illustration of verse romances, they did not progress significantly beyond this heritage. The Timurid Zafarnama and perhaps the most Ilkhanid Chingiznama had chronicled military exploits in a loosely epic style. Ottoman painters, when they revered to this subject matter, approached it in the spirit of a diarist or journalist, and inflated it to a major artistic genre. The process began modestly enough with the versified Suleymannama of C.932 H., but by c.965H. It reached its apogee with Suleymannama of Arifi. Constantly refined through long use in Persian Painting, those conventions were designed to keep the real world at a distance, and to transform nature into art. Sultan Salim I, in 920/1514, defeated the Iranians under the command of the first Safavid ruler, shah Ism’il (d.930/1524) at the battle of Chaldiran. Then he levied a contribution of craftsmen, who were skilled in various facets of the production of fine books. These artist included calligrapher, painter, illuminaters , bookbinders and so on. It is recorded that, in 922-3/1516-17, over seven hundreds such craftsmen and their families were taken to Istanbul. Undoubtedly it was also at this time that many of the illustrated Persian books and muraqas (albums) still in the topkapi saray collections were taken there. Moreover, more artists and manuscripts were taken in intervals during the first half of the 10th/16th century. Registers in the Topkapi Saray archives record that sixteen artists were taken from Tabriz to work in Istanbul after Salim victory in 220/1514. Several of the latter bear the name Tabrizi. On record dated 952/1595 gives a separate lists but only in 964/1557 that Tarkish names occur. Mustaf? Ali Afandi, who gives so much information about Naggashkhanah or studio, states that by the tend of the 10th/16th century Turkish artists were firmly in control and that the heyday of the Persians in the Studios was over. Persian artists to teach and to work on manuscripts in the palace Studios. It might be thought that the prevailing 10th/16th century Persian influence on Turkish miniature painting wound be confined to that of the Tabriz school. The subtle colours, complicated rock patterns, haphazard grouping of people and tents, romanticized landscapes all characteristic of the Persian miniature that have already given way to Ottoman miniature painting. Ottoman artists working in the Sultan’s studios could not fail to have been influenced by such exquisite work as Persian miniatures that were ready to hand. In addition they were thought by Persian artist and worked side by side with them. This article confined Persian influence in the Ottoman miniature painting and artists in ninth to tenth centuries.

 
Keyword(s): REGISTERS OF ARTISTS, TOPKAPI SARAY ARCHIVES, SHAHQULI TABRIZI, KAMAL TABRIZI, ISTANBUL PAINTING SCHOOL
 
References: 
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