Paper Information

Journal:   HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA (HONAR-HA-YE-TAJASSOMI)   SPRING 2010 , Volume - , Number 41; Page(s) 5 To 12.
 
Paper: 

STUDYING THE FORM AND THE SHAPE OF THE PERSIAN RHYTONS (FORTH MILLENNIUM B.C. TO SASANIAN PERIOD)

 
 
Author(s):  DADVAR ABOULGHASEM*, MESBAH ARDEKANI N.
 
* FACULTY OF ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF ALZAHRA, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

The researches have made different explanations about rhytons, but they mostly accepted that "rhyton is a kind of a drinking vessel often in the form of an animal, having two holes for pouring water." Rhytons were used in Iran from forth millennium B.C. to the end of sasanian period. The animals that are used are of two different kinds: imaginary animals or the real animals. Diversity of the shape and the form of rhytons besides their decorations can briefly show the believes of ancient people. This research is studying the form and the shape of 140 rhytons. The shape of the rhytons can be categorized as follows: The structure: We can categorize the structure of Persian rhytons into three distinct groups: 1-conical or cylindrical rhytons: In the cylindrical ones a kind of cone shaped form is used which has a circle segment. The neck is cylindrical and ended into an animal head. In the conical types the conic part is connected to the animal head in a 90 degree angle. 2-Horned shaped rhytons: they have a long shaft and a conical part resembling much to the horns of the animals. They all ended to the forepart of the body of an animal. In some examples a human body is used. 3-Jug shaped rhytons: These are made in the form of the body of animals. The main part of the body is exaggerated and made the main part of the body. The form and decorations:  All the three groups have different decorations which are made in accordance to the main structure of the rhytons: 1-conical or cylindrical rhytons: In this group the form of goat, lbex, horse and goat is used in the final figure. The animals head is made accurate and close to natural. Sometimes the eyes are bigger than usual. The horns are spiral shaped. They completely convey the dignity and serenity of Persian art. On the conical parts horizontal grooves are used. 2- Horned shaped rhytons: the shaft is emphasized. The most important part is the ending figure. Different types of animals like goat, Ibex, horse, elephant, lion, wildcat and some imaginary types such as winged horses or lions, gryphons and horse men are used. In some cases female or male figures are used. The animal figures show not only the head of the animal but also the fore part of the body. Like the other groups they are made so naturalistic. The horns are "S" shaped and the teeth and tong is obvious. 3-Jug shaped rhytons: this group is so simple in the form and decorations. Like the previous groups great accuracy is used to make the forms. Ordinary animals "in this group are cows, goats, horses and birds."The animals in this group are made as if in a happy life. Simple motifs like triangles, hatchings are horizontal lines are painted on the body.

 
Keyword(s): RHYTON, FORM, DECORATION, STRUCTURE, ENDING FIGURE
 
References: 
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