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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF RURAL RESEARCH   SUMMER 2010 , Volume 1 , Number 2; Page(s) 27 To 48.


Author(s):  TALEB M.*, NAJAFI ASL Z.
Public Participation, from the viewpoints of experts, is so valuable that sometimes becomes equal to development or the means or the purpose of development.
Participation as a social reality and essence of human societies, has roots in human social life and is among processes that have changed into multi-forms by lapse of time. From the past times villagers have had numerous Participation behaviors in form of self-help, others-help and cooperation, some of which still exist. These types of Participation are intentional, voluntary, spontaneous and without intervention of an external factor.
The influence of the government on the rural society after land reforms and the villagers support oriented policies, assignment of farmlands, granting contributions to the villagers in cash and without exchange, performing civil projects with the government budget and western development programs without any coordination with the Iranian rural society, led to disappearance of traditional participation patterns and the government could not find a suitable substitute for these patterns; this trend caused the fading, and in some cases, complete disappearance of rural spontaneous participations and cooperation and many activities were expected to be done by the government. In fact, the concentrated government was not in need of the participation of people because it had achieved new financial resources (oil sale * E-mail: Rural Research Quarterly Summer 2010 income, etc.) . No tax was demanded from the people but their needs were not met and consequently the people and the government were separated.
To compensate inequalities and to remove deprivation, the contributions were increased during the years after the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran. In the beginning of the tormation of the Construction Tihad, no emphasis was placed on the work of rural people, instead, teams of nobel people were dispatched to villages for harvesting or fruit picking.
In the past only the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Civil was in charge of the rural sector, but sin', ce after the revolution, different institutions such as Construction Jihad, Ministry of the Interior, Welfare Organization, cooperatiues Organization, Foundation for the Poor, Imam Khomeini Relief Committee and Martyrs Foundation intervene in rural affairs, Instead of gradual guidance, they have continued to intervene and help the rural people and this fact has caused people to be more dependant on the government and it has decreased the spirit of self-sufficiency and participation. In fact, Participation is a multi-dimensional flow, i.e. its legitimacy is not materialized by the government alone, because in different societies, especially rural ones, there are some institutions that were formerly founded based on the requirements of the time and have survived so far and have obtained their legitimacy from their social, cultural and ethical characteristics, with no need for the governments', legislation.
Obeying the imported patterns regardless of the cultural, social and economic record of the village and the establishment of new participation institutions, has caused rural people to be more dependant on the government and also traditional Participation patterns are neglected. Unfortunately in Iran, "Modernity" refers to a group of economic and social evolutions mainly made by the highest point of fluency and power.
In this paper, a number of solutions are presented to make a balance between the traditional Participation patterns and modernization programs. In this regard combinational solutions are proposed that while enjoying local knowledge of rural people, certain parts of modernization programs that are in coordination with the bases of tradition and culture of the rural societies, are selected to revive the Participation of the rural people.
In order to get this result, we are in need of adjustment of power and shrinking the base of the pyramid of power, paving the way for the activities and the Participation of the rural people, increasing the spirit of collectivism, improvement of the relation between the government and the nation, increasing the tolerance of Rural Researches Quarterly Summer 2010 government officers when assigning responsibilities to people, ciecating groups and shifting responsibilities, paying attention to social and cultural expectations, requirements and priorities of the society and contribution of centracts to partners by the government.
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