Paper Information

Journal:   HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA (HONAR-HA-YE-NAMAYESHI-VA-MOOSIGHI)   FALL 2009 , Volume - , Number 38; Page(s) 47 To 55.
 
Paper: 

PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL OF WESTERN THEATRE IN IRAN

 
 
Author(s):  AGHAI NASSER*, NAZARZADEH KERMANI FARHAD
 
* SCHOOL OF PERFORMING ARTS & MUSIC, COLLEGE OF RNE ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 
Within the domain of Iranian culture, various theatrical forms have been recognized, some of which belong to the past centuries. Iranian people have become acquainted with Western theatre, its forms and styles, since about 130 years ago. Such an approach developed from time to time and consequently resulted in new forms of theatre. There were numerous forms of theatrical presentations in Iran before the entry of Western theatre. The most important and famous wasthe Ta' zyieh, a religious tragic passion play and Takht-e-howzi, a comic play based on the subjects derived from the ordinary daily life of Iranians. These two forms were so poplar among people of almost all ranks. (the same as exists today) The other forms of shows were mostly presented as amusement rather than a theatre play with all its, specifications.
Nevertheless, many theatre directors have so far coloured partially their stage presentations by the elements of such shows. The entry of Western theatre in Iran happened primarily by the translation and adaptation of the original plays. This caused a step by step familiarity' of many Iranian people in the capital city Tehran, and a few other large cities with Western culture. The playwrights and audiences of such plays were mostly educated high and middle class urban citizens as well as those artists who had already studies in U.S.A. and Europe. This group of people played a remarkable role in the growth and development of Western theatre in Iran. The intellectuals of modern Iran paid accurate attention to the content of art and literature. They considered the artistic and cultural products critically and mostly believed that arts and literature should serve directly morality and politics. Westernised Iranian theatre, which maybe called "Westernised Influenced transitional Iranian theatre, " impacted substantially on many Iranian playwrights and theatrical artists. Such a theatre, in regards of theory and dramaturgy, resembled so closely to Western theatre and was received broadly by the educated intellectuals while the majority of people still refrained themselves from changing their tastes to pay a slight attention to it. It is to be mentioned that Western theatre was considered by many spirituals somehow seriously against religious ideas and beliefs. Religious leaders believed that Western would spread a kind of culture which was not approved by- Iranian Islamic thoughts. The govern.- mental policies for spreading foreign culture in Iran.
especially during the Pahlavi dynasty, could not help the growth of Western theatre throughout the country.
Even holding the Shiraz Art Festival for about 11 years could not bring people to the festival forum, except few educated people, mostly university scholars.
Despite the notice and acceptance of the educated Iranians and also the support of the government, Western theatre faced serious problems since its entry; the problems which still exists even after several decades. The main reasons behind the failure of the development of Western theatre in Iran should be found in three important factors: 1) the disinterestness of the majority of people, especially the illiterate ones 2) the substantial fanatic religious beliefs and 3) the shortage of adequate institutional centres.
 
Keyword(s): WESTERN THEATRE FORMS, IRANIAN TRADITIONAL THEATRE FORMS, WESTERN THEATRE IN IRAN, TA' ZYIEH, TAKHT-E-HOWZI
 
References: 
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