Paper Information

Journal:   HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA (HONAR-HA-YE-NAMAYESHI-VA-MOOSIGHI)   FALL 2009 , Volume - , Number 38; Page(s) 5 To 13.
 
Paper:  THE IDENTITY AND PARTICULARITY OF NATIONAL CINEMA
 
Author(s):  GHAHRAMANI MOHAMMAD BAGHER*, HAJ AGHA MOHSENI SIAVASH
 
* SCHOOL OF PERFORMING ARTS AND MUSIC, COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 
Through the different stages of the history of the cinema, the nationality attached to a film, whether with regards to the country where it was filmed or the country that produced it, neither had much significance.
Melies, Gaumont and Pathe, for instance, had offices in the United States and American film companies had offices outside of the United States. Although' national cinema' as a term emerged in 1915 in the two countries that had industrial power, namely the German Reich and the United States, ever since the 80's we have seen a growing attention toward the concept of national cinema. In many countries like Iran, the concept has been treated indigenously.
Over the years, national cinema has been considered to flourish as a result of the economic rivalries between the leading film producing countries. The need for rules and regulation goveming the exclusive rights to sell and distribute a film in a certain region (country) caused a relation between the cinema industry and national monopoly. In the past decades, due to the cultural differences and the increasing exchanges among nations, its importance has multi plied. Theories and criticisms in this filed have been formed typically in relation and mostly in opposition to the mainstream Hollywood cinema. Nevertheless, the recent theoreticians are Determined to avoid an oversimplification of the subject so that the whole cinema of a country/nation could be studied in depth. In this regards, the diverse aspects of the cultural representation of countries and nations in the films could be further studied. Multiple elements affect the particularity of a national cinema. They may include the geographical and political boundaries a film is made in, the nationality of the filmmakers, The language of the filmmakers or the film, the legal and commercial regulations, audiences' needs and gratifications, profits and losses, and so on. Problems arise when some western academic institutions study the cinematic culture of non-western countries based on pre-established European/American patterns and accepted paradigms. To also take for granted the existence of an international and universal aesthetic and grammar of film could prove problematic.
Another obstacle mentioned by theoreticians is.
related to the commercial nature of cinema which as an artistic as well an industrial endeavor, needs a strong and rich local market or an international market.
This in effect could be the grounds for unison under a dominant discourse, like the cinema of India. We have tried in this paper to highlight and explain the theoretical aspects as well as to delineate the limits of this term. This research discusses the several methods for studying a national cinema.
Additionally, we have realized that the particularity of one national cinema is rooted in the questions of identity and the cultural unity and diversity of any given country or nation. We are noticing that in spite of the fact that this subject is under a great deal of scrutiny and discussion, its importance is fading because the national and cultural boundaries are vanishing and thus we will be witnessing the strengthening of the transnational cinemas in the future.
 
Keyword(s): NATIONAL CINEMA, IRANIAN CINEMA, NATION, HOLLYWOOD, TRANSNATIONAL CINEMA
 
References: 
  • ندارد
 
  Persian Abstract Yearly Visit 41
 
Latest on Blog
Enter SID Blog