Paper Information

Journal:   RAZI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES (JOURNAL OF IRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES)   APRIL 2010 , Volume 17 , Number 70; Page(s) 24 To 29.
 
Paper: 

NORMAL VARIATIONS OF THE GLENOHUMERAL LIGAMENT COMPLEX IN IRANIAN POPULATION

 
 
Author(s):  TORKAMAN A.*, KHOSRAVI A.A.F., NAZPARVARD B., ZANGI M.
 
* ORTHOPEDIC DEPARTMENT, FIROOZGAR HOSPITAL, IRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES AND HEALTH SERVICES, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Background & Aim: Although glenohumeral ligament complex was described decades ago, its anatomic variants, which are necessary to be known to differentiate normal anatomy from pathology, have not been assessed in Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic characteristics of normal variations in the glenohumeral ligament complex (GHLC) in Iranian population.
Patients and Method: We investigated 105 cadavers’ shoulders and recorded arthroscopic visualization of the superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL), medial glenohumeral ligament (MGHL), and anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL). In addition, we noted the location of their origin with respect to the anterior glenoid in terms of a clock face. The degree of MGHL and AIGHL development and the presence of cord-like MGHL, Buford complex, and sublabral foramen were also investigated. It was an observational, cross-sectional study and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results.
Results: Of 105 studied cases, 93 (87.6%) manifested an SGHL, 100 (95.2%) an MGHL, and 105( all cases) an AIGHL. Having studied the origin of the ligaments in terms of a clock face, 77% of the MGHL origin was at 1 o'clock position and 23% at 2 o'clock position. The AIGHL originated in an area located between 2 and 4 o'clock position: in 67 cases (63.8%), the origin was at 2 o'clock position, 33 cases (31.4%) at 3 o'clock position, and 5 cases(4.8%) at 4 o'clock position. Medial glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) and inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) were poorly developed in 15% and 17.1% of the cases respectively, without the presence of cord-like MGHL, Buford complex, and sublabral foramen.
Conclusion: This study provides useful information concerning normal variations of the glenohumeral ligaments, and further studies in a larger population are suggested to evaluate cord-like MGHL, Buford complex, and sublabral foramen.

 
Keyword(s): GLENOHUMERAL LIGAMENT COMPLEX, ANATOMIC VARIANTS, POORLY DEVELOPED LIGAMENT, WELL DEVELOPED LIGAMENT
 
References: 
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