Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE)   2008 , Volume 2 , Number 5; Page(s) 49 To 56.
 
Paper: 

OCULAR SIGNS DUE TO HYPERNATREMIA

 
 
Author(s):  HEYDARPOUR F.*, DERAKHSHANDEH J., FEKRI A., HEYDARPOUR P.
 
* DEPT. OF PHYSIOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY, ZANJAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Disorder in drinking, fluid deprivation, severe disabilities, increase in water excretion from kidney and non-kidney route and increase in salt consumption are the main causes of hypernatremia. The objective of this study was to determine ocular signs due to hypernatremia Method: 50 male Wistar rats, weighing 250 + 20 g were allocated randomly to 5 groups. Test groups consumed 2, 3, 3.5 and 4 percent salt concentrations respectively as potable water, control group used tap water; with similar living conditions for all groups. Ophthalmic examinations with slit-lamp and fundus camera were performed. Eye response to light and manuel stimuli was considered. This experiment with similar condition was done on pig and rabbit.
Result: Short time using of 2% salt solution was not associated with fast and significant ocular changes but its prolonged use accompanied with vascular damage and other ocular signs. Retinal and vitreous hemorrhages were observed 3-4 days after drinking 3% and higher salt solutions followed by an increase in serum sodium level. Other ocular signs in test groups include: vitreous shrinkage, cornea and lens opacities, swelling of optic disc, blindness, vitreous collapse and finally phthisis bulbi.
Conclusion: By hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity formation, vitreous lose some of its fluid contents and vitreous shrinkage lead to vascular damage, retinal and vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment.
Continuous hypernatremia brought conjunctivitis, corneal and lens opacities, swelling of optic disc, blindness, vitreous collapse and finally phthisis bulbi.

 
Keyword(s): HYPERNATREMIA, OCULAR SIGNS, CORNEA AND LENS OPACITIES, RETINAL HEMORRHAGES
 
References: 
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