Paper Information

Journal:   LITERARY CRITICISM   FALL 2008 , Volume 1 , Number 3; Page(s) 29 To 58.
 
Paper: 

DISCOURSE PRESENTATION IN LITERARY AND NON- LITERARY WRITTEN NARRATIVES

 
 
Author(s):  RAHGOUY FARIDEH*
 
* TEHRAN UNIVERSITY
 
Abstract: 

Polyphonic discourse is closely linked to Bakhtin's theory about "Polyphony". Although the theory is rather familiar in Iran, its implications in different fields such as philosophy, culture, language, and literature is not that clear. The present article considers Bakhtin’s theory as one consequence of using “Free Indirect” discourse presentation mode which is one among the other modes. By “discourse presentation” here, I mean the presentation of characters’ speech (writing) and thought in both written fictional and non-fictional narratives.
There are some possibilities available for writers (reporters) to present people’s speech and thought. The present article describes five categories, without giving any special preference to each. Semino and Short’s model of Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation (SW& TP) provides the base for the description. The categories are as follows:

narrator's representation of voice Narrator's representation of writing Internal narration
Narrator's representation of speech acts


Narrator's representation of
Writing acts

Narrator's representation of thought acts
Indirect speech Indirect writing Indirect thought
Free indirect speech Free indirect writing Free indirect thought

Direct speech

Free direct speech

Direct writing

Free direct writing

Direct thought

Free direct thought

The categories are of fine gradations as we move along the cline of discourse presentation, from the more bound (to the narrator's interference) to the more free end, where the narrator's interference seems to become less and less, until, in the most extreme version (free direct discourse), he apparently leaves the characters to talk entirely on their own. While there is formal parallelism between the categories in three scales of speech, writing and thought, the functional variations are noticeable.
The corpus analyzed here, contains 30 text samples of approximately 2, 000 words each, of 20th century written Iranian Farsi, in order to throw light on discourse presentation theory and on how patterns of discourse presentation vary in literary and non-literary written narratives, on the one hand, and in long stories and short stories, on the other.

 
Keyword(s): DISCOURSE PRESENTATION, FICTIONAL DISCOURSE, NEWSPAPER DISCOURSE, POLYPHONIC DISCOURSE, THE CATEGORIES OF DISCOURSE PRESENTATION
 
References: 
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