Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF RURAL RESEARCH   SPRING 2010 , Volume 1 , Number 1; Page(s) 67 To 97.
 
Paper: 

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF DEHYARAN BY EMPHASIS ON PERIPHERAL FACTORS (CASE STUDY: VILLAGES DEHYARAN OF MIYANDOAB)

 
 
Author(s):  IMANI JAJARAMI HOSSEIN*, POURRAJAB MIANDOUAB PEYMAN
 
* FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, TEHRAN UNIVERSITY
 
Abstract: 
The entrepreneurship enjoys long record in human's life and related studies of this topic, initially, have accomplished by scientific groups in industrial countries. Nevertheless this debate in our country has taken in consideration recently.
The entrepreneurial function implies the discovery, assessment and exploitation of Opportunities, in other words, new products, services or production processes; new strategies and organizational forms and new markets for products and inputs that did not previously exist. Schumpeter (1942) knows the Entrepreneur, person who create dynamic and change that with pressures in markets, directs them towards no balance. Low & MacMillan (1988) Entrepreneurship is the creation of new enterprise. Effective factors that we refers to, is working experience, role models, Competence, Education, Dissatisfaction.
Through working experiences, potential entrepreneurs learn about the market conditions in that sector and also build networks for future business relationships. Experiences create knowledge and possible connections. The assumption would be that it is the learning process, in general, both for negative and positive experiences, that seems to be of most importance in role-modeling effects. Dissatisfaction could be caused by a number of things: job dissatisfaction, the need for more independence, the desire to be in control of decision making, better salary prospects. The assumption is if the aggregate dissatisfaction variable is of a certain size, there will be an increased probability that the "dissatisfied" individual will start her or his own business. One could question the construction of the education variable in earlier Research studies, which mostly measure the level of education, but not the Content of that education. The competence variable is a combination of different factors: personal networks; job training; education; tacit knowledge; and learning experiences.
New Rural management system of Iran during many years in order to social structures, have a complicated evolutions and changes. And unfortunately, the lake of efficient management in rural in the whole of these periods, especially, from 1340s forward and in the recent decades, provided many problems for rural residential.
Although, after Islamic Revolution of Iran victory, existed formations as Shoora-e-Eslami, Khane-e-Hamyar, Daftar-e-Omran-e-Roostayi and so on in rurals. But of lack of being efficient fundamentals and performance organizations didn't achieve the more success. Because of these disorders in the 1377, approved establishment of the self-efficient dehyaris law in the rural. With regard to this law, rurals with up to 20 family, must have a Dehyar and predicted that until the end of forth program, establish the Dehyari for all rural with families up 20. These rural, includes 53/4 percent of all of rural in the country that have a 95/3 percent of rural population in Iran.
Entrepreneurship is important from two dimensions, economic and social, for rural and rural management of Iran.
For economic dimension, problem of employment and employment is very obvious. With regards to the results general census of population and settlement is the 1385, unemployment rate of rural areas is 14/74 percent, and participation rate is 40/85 percent. Cause is the low existed occupations and employment is related to undeveloping agriculture activities in rural. and this also is, because of reduction of employed population in this section, adding rural employed population to the urban population and becoming empty of rural in the recent decades.
From the other side providing appropriate services is the important challenges in the rurals of Iran. One of the modern patterns of servicing is up to governmental management.
Society-oriented governance (empowering society instead of direct servicing of government) is also examples of governmental actions in this pattern. In this pattern, instead of servicing with regard to past processes, states or governments try to empower the citizens, local formations and source to solving problems. With regard to that, governmental and public managers learned that past endeavors in servicing to clients and costumer, make dependence which make dark economic-social independence originated from that.
The perceive that one of main means of managementism, is providing the public participation with nongovernmental institutions.
Dehyari as a public and nongovernmental institution plays the most important role. Attaining the whole side rural development system that public participation will be the basic element, that is not achieved without respecting to local leaders and belief to the potential and actual abilities of those and providing local formations. Because of these, knowing to entrepreneurship characteristics of Dehyaran found the increasing importance.
The main goal of this article is evaluation of entrepreneurship characteristics and effect of peripheral factors on Dehyaran as new rural managers. According to recent researches
On determining of entrepreneurs' characteristics, entrepreneurs have varied behavioral characteristics. Because of variety of these characteristics, 8 characteristics have selected and in a questioner has distributed between 76 rural manager of Miyandoab and analyzed. The result of this research demonstrated that in 5 characteristics the scores of Dehyaran are more than Criterion Average (2/5) and in high level but in 3 characteristics the scores are less and in low level, which in general representative that the Dehyaran who have surveyed enjoy entrepreneurship's average more than Criterion Average with 3/07 score. Also by evaluation of two factor (age and education as peripheral factors) and study of media and going to city as combination of two factors, the result demonstrated that combinational factors like: age-education, age-media study, education-going to city and education-media study have no effect on Dehyaran's entrepreneurship extent. But the combinational factor likes: age-going to city, has meaningful relation with entrepreneurship of Dehyaran.
 
Keyword(s): ENTREPRENEURSHIP, ENTREPRENEUR, ENTREPRENEURS CHARACTERISTICS, DEHYARAN, MIYANDOAB
 
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