Paper Information

Journal:   VETERINARY RESEARCH (GARMSAR BRANCH)   SPRING-SUMMER 2009 , Volume 5 , Number 1; Page(s) 41 To 46.
 
Paper: 

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY OF NORMAL CAMELS, TECHNIQUE AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE

 
 
Author(s):  DEHGHAN ABOUZAR*, VESHKINI A., NASR ELAHZADEH MASOULEH M., REZAKHANI ALI, NADALIN M.GH.
 
* DEPARTMENT OF RADIOLOGY, FACULTY OF SPECIALIZED VETERINARY SCIENCE, ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY, RESEARCH AND SCIENCE COMPUS, TEHRAN, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Echocardiography has been frequently used in veterinary in horses and cows since 40 years ago but there is no information about camel echocardiography. In this study, 10 male and 10 female clinically healthy one-year-old camels (camelus dromedarius) were examined. Echocardiography was performed by B.K. Medical machine (mini focus model) and 2-4MHZ multi frequency phased array transducer. Camels were examined clinically and electrocardiographically and those found healthy were studied for echocardiography. The third through the fifth intercostal space (midway) between point of shoulder (POS) and point of elbow (POE) were shaved in both side and covered by copulated gel. To obtain image of right parasternal long axis four chamber view, transducer was placed parallel to ribs in 5th intercostal space midway between point of shoulder and point of elbow, then transducer was placed slightly cranially to image left ventricular out flow tract (LVOT). Transducer was placed in LVOT location but in the 4th intercostal space and slightly craniodorsally to image right ventricular out flow tract (RVOT). To image left ventricle short axis views, transducer with 90-100 degree clockwise rotation, was placed vertically to the ribs direction in 5th intercostals space. Slightly fanning transducer to dorsal was necessary to image mitral valve. To image aortic valve, transducer with 30 degree clockwise rotation was placed in the same location for mitral valve location. Cardiac structures in left parasternal long axis views in three views were seen. Transducer in the 3rd intercostal space in heart location parallel to ribs was placed. To image LVOT, transducer was placed in 4th intercostal space slightly craniodorsally. Then for viewing mitral valve it was placed in 5th intercostals space parallel to ribs direction without rotation. Camel heart is located more caudally than horse and cow and this helps to better imaging in its echocardiography. The quality of the images varied. This variation was due to a variety of factors, including body condition, the width of the intercostal space and the demeanor of the camels. Low heart rate in camel makes careful evaluation of anatomy and movement of cardiac structures possible in real time echocardiography.

 
Keyword(s): ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, HEART, CAMEL, TRANSDUCER
 
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