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Paper Information

Journal:   WOMAN IN DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICS (WOMEN'S RESEARCH)   Spring 2004 , Volume 2 , Number 1; Page(s) 165 To 178.
 
Paper: 

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURES

 
 
Author(s):  NOROOZI L.
 
* 
 
Abstract: 
Besides the significant differences in the level of participation and unemployment rates of men and women, differences in the type of employment, job promotion and wages also exist in the Iranian labor market. In this paper, the analysis of the unfavorable status of women in the labor market is based on neoclassical theory, gender theory and the segmentation of the labor market theories. These theories are complementary and each one explains one aspect of the problem under study. The aim of this study is to examine the gender dimensions of the structure of the labor market, in terms of the variety of employment options, job promotion and earning potential (wages) in Iran. The study utilizes both an explanatory and analytical approach, in examining the 1375 population census (1996), the 1379 family income and expenditure census (2000), and the 1382 employment and unemployment data (2003). The results of the study confirm theories that claim the existence of a limited variety of employment options for women as well as their limited job promotion opportunities. Additionally, womens wages, even with equal education levels, tend to be less than mens wages. A higher rate of difference exists between men and women in rural areas and also between men and women with lower education levels. The median income of men in rural and urban areas is 2.2 and 8.1 times higher than that of women, respectively. In other words, for the same amount of work hours, mens wages in urban areas are 63% higher than the wages earned by women.
 
Keyword(s): OB PROMOTION, EMPLOYMENT TYPES, INEQUALITY, LABOR MARKET, WOMEN
 
References: 
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  Persian Abstract Yearly Visit 76
 
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