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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES   SUMMER 2005 , Volume - , Number 45-46 (SPECIAL ISSUE ON PERSIAN LITERATURE); Page(s) 39 To 51.
 
Paper: 

SATIRE IN HAFIZ'S POETRY

 
 
Author(s):  CHENARI A.A.A.*
 
* DEPARTMENT OF PERSIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, SHAHID BEHESHTI UNIVERSITY
 
Abstract: 
Satire is a kind of rhetorical figure, not a literary genre in Hafiz’s poetry. Hafiz’s methods of creating satire are various, sophisticated, with indefinite brevity. Misunderstanding of satirical methods in his poems, some times, has brought about incorrect interpretations opposed to the poet’s intention. In this article, Hafiz’s satirical methods have been classified into 12 categories such as satire through ambiguity, paradox, new and satirical interpretations of important subjects, logical fallacy, attributing opposite behaviours in to one self and so on. Hafiz’s criticized are all typical, without any names and are of two types: authorities and religious. He criticizes these characters in view of 1) moral principles and individual values 2) social damages. His satire is usually modest without any disgracing words. The subjects of his satire are mainly the criticism of those who object to the ideas of love and mysticism, the oppressive governors, morals and the hypocritical muslims. The form of his satire is often the result of gathering together incompatible elements, adhering to the false and intentional fallacy in an elegant and secret way. This is completely compatible with "the content" of his criticism of the society with is laws and basic structures deeply opposed to each other.
 
Keyword(s): SATIRE, HAFIZ, PERSIAN POTRY
 
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