Paper Information

Journal:   IRANIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES (JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE)   2007 , Volume 37 , Number 6; Page(s) 1067 To 1081.
 
Paper: 

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF WHEY CONCENTRATE AND WHEY POWDER, ON THE QUALITY OF WHEAT FLOUR-BAKED PRODUCTS

 
 
Author(s):  KERAMAT J.*, DOKHANI SH., BOZORGZAD M.
 
* FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 
Abstract: 
Considering that whey proteins have excellent functionality and physicochemical properties in foods, in this research, whey concentrate as well as whey powder was used to improve the formula of three wheat flour products. Two kinds of industrial whey powder and laboratory whey concentrate which was produced by vacuum evaporation and lactose crystallization containing: 11.4, 12.5 and 17 percent protein (dry weight) respectively, were used. The heat denaturation level of the proteins of the samples was estimated by using gel electrophoresis experiments. The whey powders and concentrate were used in the ratios of 3, 5, 7 and 10 percent on the basis of flour in the formula of macaroni and the ratios of 0.4, 0.7, 1 and 1.3 percent on the basis of flour in the formula of cake and biscuits, respectively. The cooking loss of cooked macaroni, raw macaroni color, stickiness after cooking and breaking strength of twelve samples of produced macaronis were evaluated. The creep test (by Instron), volume unit weight, external layer color and the degree of aging of twelve samples of produced cakes were determined. The level of tenderness and external layer color of twelve samples of produced biscuits were assessed. The panell test of the samples of all the products was done by panelists.
Results showed that increasing protein content in the whey powder and in concentrates had increasing beneficial effects on the physicochemical properties, resulting in higher qualities of the products. The use of industrial powder and laboratory whey concentrate and the level of 10% on the basis of flour of macaroni provided the best results for the quality characters under study. Use of the levels of 0.7 and 1 percent of the existing flour in the formula of cake for the laboratory whey concentrate and two kinds of industrial powder produced the best quality products, respectively. With respect to biscuits, the best products were obtained, by using the levels of 1 and 1.3 percent for the laboratory whey concentrate, and the two kinds of industrial powder, respectively. In the above research data analysis was done through a Factorial test while a comparison of averages, made using Duncan test.
 
Keyword(s): WHEY POWDER, WHEY CONCENTRATE, WHEAT FLOUR-BAKED PRODUCTS
 
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