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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES   2005 , Volume 11 , Number 1 (SUPPLEMENT); Page(s) 69 To 104.
 
Paper: 

TECHNOLOGY OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AND POLLINATION OF IRANIAN CUCUMBER CULTIVARS IN PROTECTED CULTIVATION AND ORGANIC PRODUCTION CROP

 
 
Author(s):  SHOJAEI MAHMOUD, OSTOVAN HADI, DARVISH F., TIRGARI S., LABAFI Y.A., RAJABI M.Z.
 
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Abstract: 

Cultivation of cucumber in glasshouse, plastic tunnel and under plastic cover, to produce european varieties. is becoming popular practice and very profitable in recent years. On almost over 1000 hectares, in different parts of Iran. The greenhouse culture of European parthenocarpic varieties of cucumber is simple in their management. Because they require no pollination for fruit production-but the producers are now facing the following tow major problems:
- Their dependency on heavy application of insecticides, fungicides and acaroids to control plant pests and diseases. That may be very expensive, because of their more use (two or three times per week).
- Their dependency on imported hybrid seeds, furthermore there is not too much depend for this type of crop. Due to low quality and fruit taste in Iranian markets.
- The pesticides residues in crop. Health hazard consequences. Environmental pollution. And the high cost of importing hybrid seeds. and pesticides are other problems.
- During the cours of 4 years research, our study of IPM in two programs of preventive and reasonably biocontrol shown:
- That preventive control such as: all aspects of cropping measures, were more effective and Iranian cucumber cuitivares toierated the pests and diseases better than imported parthenocarpic cultivares.
- That the reasonably control. such as: release of beneficial insects (parasitoids and predators). Regularly using of different biomaterials.
- Intercropping of cucumber and tomato and companion planting (bean, eggplant, pepper yellow sweet) for the conservation of biodiversity in the biotope of greenhouse and implentation of integrated crop management (ICM).
- In preventive measures adequate irrigation control of temperature (22±4°c), relative humidity (60-70%), light (14-16 hours period) and supplementation of Co2 in greenhouse is also very important for increasing resistance of plants to pests and yield increase.
- Planting the seeds in nursery pots, for uniform transplantation. With the use three four week transplants in greenhouse, that is free of diseases and pests. The transplant were more advantageous than direct seeding (See:pp. 2, 3, 28, 29).
- In biological program of IPM mass rearing and innundative release of predators: Orius albidipennis and Aphidolets aphidimyza are effective in reasonably control of aphids. traps and the use of biomaterials, Such as: savona, Bacillus etc. to keep the pests and diseases bellow economic threshold level (See:pp. 9, 11, 12, 30, 33).
- Using yellow sticky traps for trapping sucking paste, from transplantation period, for prevention of pests outbreak (See: pp. 14, 18).
- Release of parasitoid wasps: Diglyphus isaea for control of leafminer, and Eretmocerus mundus for whitefly control. and at the same time use of antagonists, for control of mildews sush as Bacillus subtilis, milk, copost tea and Bacillus thurengiensis (Bactospein) for control Trichoplusia, were also effective (See: pp. 14. 15. 16. 18.30).
- During 15 cultivation period: from 1998-2003. It became clear, that for proper implementation of good IPM program the off season cultivation (fall and winter) should be recommended for good production and marketing. (see:p.35).
- In greenhouse culture of Iranian cultivars of cucumber the prime importance of our study was focused on the fecundity of female flowers that are monoecious with separate male and female flowers in the same plant. The tow Iranian seed cultivars obtained from Basmenj regjon near Tabriz and Dastguerd region near Isfahan (see: p.20).
- In 1998 the leaf cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) were released in greenhouse culture for pollination and to secure the pollination of the crop in our glasshouse several wood nesting traps of leaf cutter bee (see: pp.20, 21) Containing larval leaf- cells were instaled against the wall in the glasshouse. (See: p. 21).
- In 2003 the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) was released in plastic tunnel. The activities of two pollinators during periodic cultures (1988-2003) were satisfactory result in crop pollination of Iranian cucumber cultivars (See: pp. 21, 31).

 
Keyword(s): ORGANIC CULTIVATION, IRANIAN CULTIVARS, POLLINATION, MEGACHILE ROTUNDATA, CUCUMIS SATIVUS, APIS MELLIFERA
 
References: 
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