Paper Information

Journal:   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES (THE JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES)   SUMMER 2007 , Volume 14 , Number 3; Page(s) 11 To 26.
 
Paper: 

TRANSCRIBING CRAFT (WARRAQI) AND TRANSCRIBERS (WARRAQAN) IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

 
 
Author(s):  BARZEGAR KLISHOMI V.A.*
 
* DEPT. OF HISTORY AND CIVILIZATION OF ISLAMIC COUNTRIES, IMAM KHOMEINI INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY
 
Abstract: 

There is probably no need for extensive exploration to believe that movable type invention had a tremendous and historical impact on expansion of science and emergence of renaissance in Europe, as tens of articles and research books have already been dedicated to this fact; but the real question which requires historical explanation is how the man before invention of printing had preserved his written inheritance or had passed it to his successors? The present article is actually an effort to answer this question in the realm of Islamic Civilization. In addition, this study while defining transcribing craft and mentioning the works copyists did, it also discussed the origins of this craft in Islamic Civilization. Then the crucial elements of transcribing such as handwriting, style of writing, methods of transcribing, social position of transcribing profession and copyists' earning, the success of copyists' business, and their verification and control by the government have been discussed, based on historical documents. Finally, a short list of some well-known copyists in Islamic Civilization is presented.

 
Keyword(s): COPYING, COPYISTS, HANDWRITING, TRANSCRIBER, WRITING, BOOK
 
References: 
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