Paper Information

Journal:   AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH   2006 , Volume 6 , Number 1; Page(s) 1 To 14.
 
Paper: 

FUNGAL AGENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ROOT AND CROWN ROT OF ALMOND TREES DECLINE IN EAST AZARBAIJAN, SEMNAN, YAZD AND CHAHARMAHAL-VA-BAKHTIARI PROVINCES

 
 
Author(s):  DIZAJI A., ZAKER MASOUD, ESMAEILZADEH HOSSEINI S.A.R., HEYDARIAN A., ERSHAD J.
 
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Abstract: 

Almond is the second important nut fruit in Iran with 152846 h. planting area and 107445 ton production in 2002. Decline disease resulting in death of almond trees is one of the damaging problems in almond gardening. During 2000-2003 almond gardens of East Azarbaidjan, Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari, Yazd and Semnan provinces were surveyed and necrotic and/or cankerous tissues of root and crown of almond trees with decline, poor growth, yellowing, wilting and death symptoms on foliage were sampled. Small segments of infected tissues were disinfected with NaClO 0.5 % and cultured on PDA, acidified PDA, CMA-PARP media. Phytophthora cactorum, Verticillium dahliae, Armillaria mellea, Rosellinia necatrix, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. compactum, Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cylindrocarpon sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp. And Trichoderma sp. were isolated. In pathogenicity tests, Phytophthora cactorum, Verticillium dahliae, Armillaria mellea and Rosellinia necatrix were highly pathogenic on 2-3 years-old almond seedlings and caused root and/or crown necrosis resulting in sharp foliage symptoms and death, but tissue necrosis symptom was observed on crown area of those inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina and roots of inoculated seedlings with Fusarium spp. Poor foliage symptoms appeared only in R. solani and F. oxysporum treatments. An isolate of Cylindrocarpon sp. was pathogenic only on 6-months-old seedlings. Four previous described fungi are principle soil-borne phytopathogenic fungal agents of almond trees decline and death, but are not the only causal agents. So a complex of soil-borne pathogenic fungi and noninfectious factors such as deep planting of seedlings, wrong irrigation methods and nonsuitable gardening practices are the causal agents of almond decline and death.

 
Keyword(s): ALMOND DECLINE, ARMILLARIA, VERTICILLIUM, PHYTOPHTHORA, ROSELLINIA
 
References: 
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