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Paper Information

Journal:   IRANIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES (JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE)   2006 , Volume 37-1 , Number 3 (AGRONOMY & CROP BIOTECHNOLOGY); Page(s) 545 To 553.
 
Paper: 

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY AND NITROGEN ON QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE YIELD OF GERMAN CHAMOMILE (MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA)

 
 
Author(s):  HAMZEEI R., MAJNOUN HOSSEINI N.*, SHARIFI ASHOURABADI A., TAVAKOL AFSHARI R.
 
* AGRICULTURAL FACULTY OF UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN
 
Abstract: 
Lack of breeding and agronomy research on chamomile in Iran, along with its high cost of production and low rates of yield, planting of this crop has not yet been substantially developed. This research was performed to determine the optimum plant density and rate of nitrogen fertilizer (N) application as well as to investigate these factor's effects on quantitative and qualitative yield of chamomile. During 2004, a 3x4 factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Natural Resources Research Station, Hamedan Province. The main factor (plant density) was considered at 3 levels (row spacing of 50 cm and plant spacings of 15, 25 and 35 cm., respectively) equivalent to 133000, 80000 and 57000 plants per hectare. The secondary factor, nitrogen, was considered at 4 levels of zero, 75, 150 and 225 kg N per hectare. Increasing plant density (133000 plants) boosted dry flower yield per hectare, however lower density (57000 plants) increased number of flowers per plant; dry flower yield per plant; dry and fresh weight of plant as well as harvest index. Rising N level (150 - 225 Kg per hectare) promoted all characters significantly, except plant dry weight. The interaction effect of plant density and N levels was positive and significant for essential oil content and yield (p£0.01). Correlation between dry flower yield per plant and harvest index was negative and significant (r= - 0.94**), whereas between the dry flower yield per hectare and essential oil yield the relationship was positive and significant (r =0.44**). Considering the maximum yield obtained per unit area, from a rise plant density, and the benefit of resulting from lower N levels on environment protection; the result several that a plant density of 133000 (50 x15 cm) and N level of 150kg per hectare forms the most suitable treatment combination.
 
Keyword(s): CHAMOMILE, PLANT DENSITY, NITROGEN, DRY FLOWER, ESSENTIAL OIL
 
References: 
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