Paper Information

Journal:   HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA   SUMMER 2007 , Volume - , Number 30; Page(s) 31 To 42.
 
Paper:  COLLAPSE OF RURAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN EARTHQUAKE: AN ECONOMICAL CONSTRUCTION METHOD PROPOSAL BASED ON AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS AND SKILLS CASE STUDY: ZARAND, KERMAN PROVINCE
 
Author(s):  GOLABCHI M.*, TAYEBAT M.
 
* SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS. UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

The primary objective of earthquake resistant design is to prevent building collapse during earthquakes thus minimising the risk of death or injury to people in or around those buildings. Because damaging earthquakes are rare, economics dictate that damage to buildings is expected and acceptable provided collapse is avoided. Earthquake forces are generated by the inertia of buildings as they dynamically respond to ground motion. The dynamic nature of the response makes earthquake loadings markedly different from other building loads. The concept of dynamic considerations of buildings is one which sometimes generates unease and uncertainty within the designer. lack of information on earthquake-resistant methods is the basic reason for construction damages of residential buildings in rural area. However, economical and financial shortage is the most important factor for limitation of execution of these methods. In rural areas, that sustain major damages in earthquakes, economical problems do not allow for construction of buildings according to the building codes for earthquake-resistance houses. Easier and inexpensive methods that are appropriate for rural area and correspond to their level of technological ability are necessary. At the present time, governmental organizations are building houses for survived citizens of Bam earthquake and some citizens of the region are starting the building of their houses. Therefore, suggestion of a sound method based on economical and technical ability of the area and people is necessary. In this investigation, the effects of earthquake on the buildings in Zarand and the failure of residential buildings of this region have been studied. This part of research aims to define" which parts of buildings are more vulnerable in earthquake or cause the damage to other parts of buildings. This investigation has identified mechanical weakness of construction materials in addition to the weakness of local human resources in executing earthquake-resistant buildings. Construction in rural regions is not usually accomplished by skilled workers. Therefore, methods must be sought that their nature does not allow wrong execution. The investigation carried out in this research showed that two parts of buildings are the most vulnerable parts of local buildings: roof that could not resist in earthquake because of its high weight and not having integrity and wall that could not support itself and even roof against lateral loads. Therefore, a construction system with lightweight roof and lateral resistant walls is necessary. The paper explains to what extent buildings in Zarand have been stable during the earthquake. The paper indicates that design and supervision method of building during the construction period must be revised and improved; and a basic change in construction methods is necessary. The paper suggests a new method based on local materials and resources. Being economical is one of the most important features of the proposed solution. Therefore, it would be compatible with the financial resources of residents of the region. The paper indicates that only the compatibility of the construction method with local economical abilities can lead to a practical and appropriate method. The other benefits of the suggested method are speed and ease of construction. The proposed construction method would be executable with local human resources easily.

 
Keyword(s): EARTHQUAKE, BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION, RURAL AREA, ZARAND, REINFORCED WALL, LIGHT ROOF
 
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