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Paper Information

Journal:   HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA   SPRING 2008 , Volume - , Number 33; Page(s) 103 To 114.
 
Paper: 

A SURVEY IN TEHRAN'S CONTEMPORARY MURALS

 
 
Author(s):  KAFSHCHIAN MOGHADAM A.*, ROUYAN S.
 
* DEPARTMENT OF PAINTING, SCHOOL OF VISUAL ARTS, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FINE ART, UNIVERSITY, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

In this survey, qualitative and structural transformation of Tehran's contemporary mural painting has been studied. The architectural reconstruction of the city of Tehran, by Pahlavi, was the first step towards the establishment of public mural painting, which was first meant to create a balance between the wall painting and its environment from a new perspective. In the Pahlavi era and previous eras, wall paintings were usually used with the aim of decorating an inside site (rooms, salons, royal gardens and etc.), but from this time onward a concept of urban design established and, therefore making murals in outside areas and public places became popular. Public mural painting in the city was divided into four categories: 1- ancient styled murals 2-formal styled murals 3- advertising murals 4- modern styled murals. The decorative aspect was the most important purpose in the murals of that time (1970-1977), advertising murals were popular, too. Although these mural paintings presented good techniques, but they were not properly in harmony with their environment and the spectator (the public for which they were prepared). After the Islamic revolution of Iran (1979), public mural painting became increasingly popular, in Tehran and other cities. Public murals of this era became intensively political and advertising. Islamic revolution murals were mainly supported by the public groups and organizations and there were no governmental control. These organizations aimed to convey their political and revolutionary ideas to people by the means of urban wall painting. This great emphasis on political and advertising objectives led to a decrease in the quality and material of the murals, and therefore destroyed the most important aspects of a city wall painting, such as, harmony between the wall painting and its architectural and natural environment. so many of these wall paintings presented a really weak techniques, such as, oil painting which was not appropriate for outside atmosphere and vanished or layered up soon after painting. During the imposed war between Iran and Iraq (1981-1989), the theme of wall paintings were most related to the war and Iranian soldiers, but they were yet weak in techniques and strategy. After the war problems of Tehran's contemporary murals came into consideration by the government organizations, but they took a wrong way and so many walls were painted in a way that was not meaningful or beautiful. In this time educated artists don't show any activity or presence in the scene of urban murals, because they thought it is merely advertising and it is not artistic. There were tow main style in the wall painting of this time: 1-decorative style (which was not really decorative or beautiful) 2- painting the face of Iranian or Islamic soldiers. From the 1380 onwards, by the establishment of wall painting group the situation changed somehow. A new trend has been seen in the mural movement and now environmental factors such as, the architectural structure, natural environment and the spectator must be taken into consideration before sketching a mural, in order to create more harmony with the environment. Through the recent years this movement has been developing rapidly. We can divide the style of this new movement into for categories: 1- decorative style 2- cultural, religious, public style 3- illusion 4- environmental advertising style.

 
Keyword(s): ENVIRONMENTAL ADVERTISING, MURAL, TEHRAN, URBAN DESIGN, WALL PAINTING
 
References: 
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