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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   SUMMER 2006 , Volume 8 , Number 2 (29); Page(s) 109 To 118.
 
Paper: 

IDENTIFICATION OF BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA AND THEIR USE IN THE REMOVAL OF OIL POLLUTANTS

 
 
Author(s):  KARGAR MOHAMMAD, KAFILZADEH FARSHID, GOUDARZIAN N.A.D., NOUHI ASHRAF ALSADAT
 
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Abstract: 

A vast variety of microorganisms secrete surface-active compounds, hence their name, biosurfactants. The secretion of these compounds by microbial cells facilitates the absorption of insoluble substrates. The most valuable application of biosurfactants is in petroleum industry where they are used for improving quality, facilitating extraction, and decreasing viscosity.

This study is aimed at the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria and the assessment of their potential application in the removal of oil pollutants.

To this end, samples from 86 different sites including petroleum wells and sites polluted by oil compounds were selected. Then 158 strains of bacteria, 10 strains of actinomycetes, 9 strains of molds, and 2 strains of yeast were isolated from those sites. After that, using emulsification tests, we studied emulsification capacity of the isolated strains. As the second step, we demonstrated biosurfactant secretion by the strains through measuring the surface tension. Finally, through measuring the surface tension, 9 bacteria strains were selected from the isolated strains, all of which caused a decrease higher than 20 dyn/cm2 in surface tension. The induction effect of biosurfactant secretion in the isolated strains was also evaluated. Among the important features of the isolated strains, one is their high salt tolerance and their successful secretion of biosurfactants in a vast pH domain. In this way, the researchers could demonstrate the proper capacity of the strains in removing oil pollutants and their application in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery.

 
Keyword(s): BIOSURFACTANT, EMULSIFICATION, BIOREMEDIATION, OIL POLLUTANT
 
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