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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   FALL 2006 , Volume 8 , Number 3 (30); Page(s) 71 To 78.
 
Paper: 

USING THE CONVENTION ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN A TRANSBOUNDARY CONTEXT (ESPOO) TO SOLVE THE CASPIAN SEA ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

 
 
Author(s):  FARSHCHI P., ROUH SHAHBAZ N.
 
* 
 
Abstract: 

The Caspian Sea with an area of about 400,000 km2 is the biggest lake in the world. It is enclosed by five countries -- the Islamic Republic of Iran, Russian Federation, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan -- and is increasingly endangered by a combination of land, river, and marine polluting sources. Nowadays, due to its valuable biotic and abiotic resources, the Caspian Sea has become more and more important. On the one hand, the existence of crude oil and gas reserves in the Sea which are extracted and exploited by some littoral countries contaminate the environment and on the other hand, pollution sources located on the coasts such as pollutants originating from industrial centers, farmlands, and municipal waste waters that enter such a closed ecosystem exert increasing pressures on it and this requires further attention and cooperation by the Caspian Sea littoral countries and the concerned environmental organizations. It is to be mentioned that most environmental problems in the Caspian Sea are of a transboundary nature and cannot to be solved without regional cooperation.
If environmental considerations are taken into account in the development plans performed by the bordering countries, the adverse impacts on this ecosystem will be prevented.
At present, the only legal framework for environmental cooperation among these countries is the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea or Tehran Convention signed by all Caspian littoral states in Tehran in 2003. The Tehran Convention will come into force once the Convention is ratified by all the parties. At present, four of these countries (Islamic Republic of Iran, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan) have ratified the Convention and the Republic of Azerbaijan will do so within the current year. Although the necessity of regional environmental cooperation in the field of EIA has been pointed out in the context of the Convention, the details for the responsibility of the countries and the mechanism of cooperation in performing EIA in a transboundary context have not been mentioned in the Convention.

 
Keyword(s): ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS WITH A TRANBOUNDARY NATURE, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ESPOO CONVENTION, EIA TRANSBOUNDARY CONVENTION
 
References: 
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