Paper Information

Journal:   HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA   SPRING 2007 , Volume - , Number 29; Page(s) 49 To 58.
 
Paper: 

THE RECOGNITION OF THE IRANIAN BATH HOUSES' FORMAL SPECIFICTIONS IN THE SAFAVID PERIOD

 
 
Author(s):  TABASI M.*, ANSARI M., TAVOUSI M., FAKHAR TEHRANI F.
 
* FACULTY OF ART, UNIVERSITY OF TARBIAT MODARRES, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

The Safavid period is the most magnificent periods in the Iranian architectural history which must studied more than this. Briefly powerful central government, security based on power, innovation and progress in structural technology and materials (based on the past experiences), urban extension based on economical expansion, Kings' interests in art and architecture (especially Shah Abbas); are the most important reasons of the architectural progress. And bat hhouses design and construction, progressed like the other kinds of architecture. Also f the Islam's emphasis on cleanliness and water respect, the principles of the Shiee religious jurisprudence, and specially the genius of the architects; made the architectural specifications of the Safavid bath houses. This specifications not only in Isfahan, but also were used in whole city of Iran, like Mashhad, kerman, kashan, etc. Many of papers which wrote about the Iranian baths houses are about the anthropological faces of this kind of Iranian architecture. Also a few numbers of papers are described only the one bath house. At this time the comparative and analytic studies are very necessary. This paper deals about the formal specifications of the Iranian bath houses at the Safavid period. Top ten Safavid bath houses were selected, and then analyzed from the view of number and circulation and hierarchy of the spaces; area, dimensions, and proportions of Bine and Garmkhane (the main spaces of an Iranian bath houses). The selected bath houses are the bath of Khosro Agha, the bath of Shah, Shazde's bath, Vazir's bath, and the bath of Aligholi Agha in Isfahan; the bath of Fin in Kashan; the Ganjali Khan's bath in Kerman; the bath of Shah and the bath of Hazrat in Mashhad; and finaly, the Kahyar's bath in Dehdasht. This study shows very similarities in the bath houses' design; to the extent that we are able to determine the stylistic formal specifications of bath houses in Isfahan school. The formal specifications of bine and garmkhane have very similarity to each other that not have any relation to the climate, city situation, and the other factors. Also in the whole of cases, the circulation and hierarchy of bine and garmkhane are followed from a uniform order. The bine is more extend than garmkhane. bine also is higher than garmkhane (the h/l ratio of bine larger than this ratio of garmkhane). But the ratio of length on width (lib), in bine and garmkhane is almost equal. The ratio of bine's area on the total area is varied from 0104through 0/39. This ratio about garmkhane is varied from 0103 trough 0/14.The other architectural parameters, like the relationship between plan and section, the unit to whole, the repetitive to unique elements, equilibrium and symmetry, etc; and also the other factors such as structures and ornaments are very important and must be study then. Also the study about Safavid baths' influences on the Qajar and Zandian bath houses must be followed in future.

 
Keyword(s): SAFAVID PERIOD, ISFAHAN SCHOOL, ARCHITECTURE, BATH HOUSES, FORM
 
References: 
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