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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF LYRICAL LITERATURE RESEARCHES (JOURNAL OF PERSIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE)   Fall 2020- Winter 2021 , Volume 18 , Number 35 ; Page(s) 165 To 184.

A Comparative Study Of Resistance Manifestations In The Poems Of Shafik Habib And Salman Harati

Author(s):  Karamad Razieh, Shamsabadi Hoseinali*, Ganjali Abbas
Introduction The resistance literature is rooted in the soil and the territory of Iran and Palestine, and the poets and literary figures of these two lands have contributed substantially to the cultivation of this concept. The Palestinian literature, using themes related to oppression and popular uprising, has wielded huge influence on promoting the resistance culture and freedom of Palestine and unravelling the nature of Zionist regime. The literary figures of Iran have also waged their battle against the Pahlavi tyranny through poetry and writing or portraying the facts overlooked in the Iran-Iraq war. The Palestinian resistance poems and the Iranian holy defense poems, as part of the national resistance literature, have played a significant role in reflecting the specific circumstances governing the battlefield of fight with the aggressors. In general, the role of the Palestinian resistance is to stimulate, mobilize, raise ethnic and national consciousness, and to direct the public opinions toward the rebellion, which helps the cause of struggle (Kanfani., 1968: 5). In Iran, the events related to Islamic Revolution and the outbreak of war, with its diverse and wide-ranging scope, have opened up new perspectives in the literature, giving rise to new images in Sacred Defense poetry. In this paper, Salman Harati from among Iranian poets, and Shafiq Habib from among Palestinian poets have been selected. We adapt and review the poetry of these two poets in the realm of resistance literature. The poems of Shafiq Habib and Salman Herati are representative of contemporary literature of Palestine and the Sacred Defense literature in Iran, respectively, emerging among the screams of resistance, the reverberations of bullets and the blood-infused clamor of refugees. On the other hand, Shafiq Habib and Salman Hradi have undergone similar experiences and periods; Shafiq Habib is a poet who has dedicated his whole life to his war-torn homeland, and paid the cost of his dedication by multiple trials, imprisonment terms and burning of his works. Salman Herati is also one of the activists in the field of resistance literature, and his first-hand experiences of dealing with suffocation, revolutionary uprisings, war and the passion of the youth, along with religious upbringing based on Islamic belief inspired him to join the circle of the Revolution poets. He strived to portray one of the burning social issue of his era, i. e. war and oppression, through the profound and yet romantic outlook of a poet. The poems of Salman are filled with spirituality, idealism and sacredness of martyrdom and endurance. "(Alipur, 1996: 85). Given that Shafiq Habib and Salman Herati have a literary approach and gone through similar experiences, this paper seeks to answer this question “ What are the similarities and differences of Shafiiq Habib and Salman Harati in portraying diverse manifestations of resistance? Research methodology This paper adopts a comparative research method that is based on content analysis. For this purpose, first the main themes of resistance literature are briefly described, and then these motifs are discussed in details in poems of Salman Harati and Shafiq Habib, to explore similarities and differences of the two poets in analyzing each of these themes. Discussion Salman Harati, Iranian poet, and Shafiq Habib, Palestinian poet, composed poems which are studying and comparing in this paper. Salman Harati and Shafiq Habib have admired warriors, called for standing against the oppressors, and talk about the war-torn people of their land and killing defenseless children there. These two poet have honored martyrs and their immortality, and described enemies and their crimes, using simile, symbol, etc. despite of their resemblance in setting to this topic, these two poet have some differences; so that Shafiq Habib has told about his war-torn nation, and also threated and humiliated enemies in his poems more than Salman Harati. Salman Harati has told about the supersensible concept of awaiting meanwhile describing the warriors and martyrs, and also he wished, in his poems, to became martyr. Conclusion The resistance literature has flourished in Iran and Palestine. Salman Harati and Shafiq Habib are two renowned poets who have composed poems on this subject. Salman Herati has praised the fighters and their sacrifices and courage, along with the innocence of children and the oppression that has been inflicted on them. He amalgamates the struggle and resistance of the fighters with the concept of expectation, rebuking the indifference of some people during the war and their moral vices. Salman Herati discusses the lofty status of martyrs and their pursuit of martyrdom, dedicating some of his poems to the children of martyrs. In his poems, Herati portrays the enemies using secret codes, allusion simile, etc., describing them with the appellation such as bat, pharaohs, and so forth. Shafiq Habib lauds the fighters and arouses the spirit of combating oppression and struggle in his nation. He invites all Palestinians to stand up and resist tyranny, aggression and oppression. He laments the unfavorable conditions of his war-stricken people, speaking out against the grief, tears, exploitation, fears, hunger, chaos, corruption, the deleterious consequences of war on children, to mention a few. Shafiq Habib honors the martyrs and portrays them as perpetual beings, arguing that martyrdom is preferable to living under oppression and aggression. He depicts the enemies of his nation as evil and double-faced, portraying them with terms such as dog, wolf, etc. In describing the enemies, he resorts to threats, humiliation and challenging of enemies, illustrating his war-stricken nation even more than Salman Herati.
Keyword(s): shafiq habib,Salman harati,Resistance
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APA: Copy

Karamad, R., & SHAMSABADI, H., & GANJALI, A. (2021). A Comparative Study of Resistance Manifestations in the Poems of Shafik Habib and Salman Harati. JOURNAL OF LYRICAL LITERATURE RESEARCHES (JOURNAL OF PERSIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE), 18(35 ), 165-184.

Vancouver: Copy

Karamad Razieh, SHAMSABADI HOSEINALI, GANJALI ABBAS. A Comparative Study of Resistance Manifestations in the Poems of Shafik Habib and Salman Harati. JOURNAL OF LYRICAL LITERATURE RESEARCHES (JOURNAL OF PERSIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE). 2021 [cited 2022January20];18(35 ):165-184. Available from:

IEEE: Copy

Karamad, R., SHAMSABADI, H., GANJALI, A., 2021. A Comparative Study of Resistance Manifestations in the Poems of Shafik Habib and Salman Harati. JOURNAL OF LYRICAL LITERATURE RESEARCHES (JOURNAL OF PERSIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE), [online] 18(35 ), pp.165-184. Available:

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