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Paper Information

Journal:   NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES RESEARCH   NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2014 , Volume 1 , Number SUPPL. (1); Page(s) 253 To 253.
 
Paper: 

OBESITY AND UROLITHIASIS: A MODERN EPIDEMIC AS A RISK FACTOR FOR AN OLD ISSUE

 
 
Author(s):  TAVASOLI S.*
 
* SHAHID BEHESHTI UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Studies revealed that obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, and the list of such diseases is growing. Recently, urolithiasis has been added to this list.
Urolithiasis is a common, highly recurrent disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide in parallel with obesity.
Because of disease cost and morbidity it should be considered as a health priority. Epidemiological studies has reported a relation between obesity and urolithiasis incidence. Besides, other studies reported that urolithiasis was associated with numerous chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus urolithiasis has been considered as a systemic disease. However, understanding the causal association between obesity and urolithiasis need in-depth review of current literature. Effect of obesity on stone composition and size Some studies found that obesity may favor different type of stone compared with general population. Morbid obese stone formers had more uric acid stones comparing to non-obese patients. Moreover, uric acid stone formers showed a significantly higher visceral fat. A positive association between stone size and BMI was also reported. Effect of obesity on urine composition Obesity has been shown to be associated with urinary inhibitors and promoters of crystallization. Higher BMI was associated with higher urinary calcium, oxalate, uric acid, sodium, phosphate and also lower urinary PH, all favors formation of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation. These differences may be the result of higher animal protein and sodium consumption by obese patients. Obesity and urolithiasis, role of systemic inflammation Since urolithiasis was associated with many chronic diseases which are closely associated with chronic systemic inflammation, chronic inflammation is suggested to be the cause of association between obesity and urolithiasis.
A recent invitro study showed that co-culture of renal tubular cells with adipocytes and macrophages, simulated metabolic syndrome conditions, resulted in more crystal adherence to renal tubular cells. Further studies are needed to assess this hypothesis.
Conclusion: Obesity seems to raise the risk of urolithiasis via different mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms may help to improve disease prevention and treatment.

 
Keyword(s): UROLITHIASIS, OBESITY, CHRONIC DISEASE
 
References: 
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