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Paper Information

Journal:   HISTORY OF ISLAM & IRAN   SUMMER 2009 , Volume 19 , Number 2 (77); Page(s) 153 To 181.
 
Paper: 

AWADEH RULERS' FINANCIAL SUPPORTS FROM SHI'I HOLY CITIES (ATABAT) IN IRAQ: A REVIEW ON THE CONCEPT OF "INDIAN MONEY"

 
 
Author(s):  HASHEMZADEH MOHAMMADIYYEH A., AGHAJARI H.
 
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Abstract: 

Awadeh rulers’Financial supports from Shi’i holy cities of Iraq and their shrines, including ‘Awadeh Bequest', or the so-called ‘Indian Money’ (‘Pul-i-Hindi’or 'Fulus ul-Hind’) was in fact one of the financial repercussions of Iranian emigration to India from the fall of the Isfahan to Nasir ud-Din Shah's reign (1135/1722-1264/1848) to an India which was Simultaneous in Moguls recent era. This period of the emigration has not attracted a sufficient scholarly attention due to its nature as transition nature which originated from decline in India traditional rulers and increasing importance on British influence. It seems that ignoring the history of that transitional period of Iranian emigration and its results as well as its financial, here financial -religious repercussions, more and less, have resulted in some misunderstandings about historical context and process of concepts such as ‘Pul-Hindi'. Available Persian and English narrations of "Indian Money" either did not dealt with what mentioned above, or even some Persianwriters deemed the money a political device devised by the English East Indian Company (EIC) authorities to influence Shi'I 'Ulama in Iran and Iraq.
This is the case while we see either the concept of Zar-i-Hind in poems of the poets, like Muhammad Fudhuli (d.970) and Sa’ib Tabrizi (d.1081), permanent and temporal Persian emigrants to India during Safavid period, or mosques such as Hakim ul-Mulk's mosque in today Isfahan; the mosque which built by Hakim's financial support, sent from India, in the same period, i.e. more than several decades before using "Indian Money" by the English as a political device.
In the present article, appreciating some valuable researches has been done about the subject, Indian Money has been viewed in the context of Iranian emigration to India, its repercussions in Iran and related centers to it, and its evolutions. Therefore, there has been presented a wider concept of ‘Indian Money', including its precedence, context, and some of its transferors toAtabat before the coming of the British East Indian Company on the scene of the action.
It should be added that emphasizing on the role of Iranian emigration in developing ‘Indian Money’does not mean denying the role of other factors in its development.

 
Keyword(s): INDIAN MONEY, IRANIAN EMIGRATION, INDIA, FINANCIAL -RELIGIOUS REPERCUSSIONS, AWADEH RULE
 
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