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Paper Information

Journal:   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (IJER)   WINTER 2011 , Volume 5 , Number 1; Page(s) 119 To 126.
 
Paper: 

THE EFFECT OF HYDRAULIC LOADING RATES ON NITROGEN REMOVAL BY USING A BIOLOGICAL FILTER PROPOSED FOR VENTILATED IMPROVED PIT LATRINES

 
 
Author(s):  COETZEE M.A.A.*, ROUX VAN M.M.P., BADENHORST J.
 
* DEPARTMENT ENVIRONMENT, WATER AND EARTH SCIENCES, TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, NELSON MANDELA DRIVE 175, ARCADIA, SOUTH AFRICA
 
Abstract: 

No on-site sanitation system treats both urine and faecal matter in one process. A laboratory scale biological filter was fed with high concentration of urea (4 g N/L) and 17.1 g COD/L to determine if it will be possible to treat liquid that leach from a ventilated improved pit latrine. The HLR in the proposed biological filter system was calculated to be ca 36 L/m2/d, significantly lower than the rates that are typical applied in standard rate biological filters (in the range of 1000 – 4000 L/m2/d) used to treat domestic wastewater. However, the TKN and COD concentrations in standard rate biological filters are significantly lower, namely ca 60 mg N/L and 500 mg COD/L, compared to the typical nitrogen and COD concentrations of faecal sludge, namely 3 - 5 g N/L and 20 – 50 g COD/L, respectively. The biological filter was operated at 13.0, 23.9, 35.7 and 62.3 L/m2/d, until stable state conditions were obtained. It was possible to remove most of the nitrogen and COD at the applied hydraulic loading rates by a combination of volatilization, nitrification and de-nitrification processes. However, at 62.3 L/m2/d the column efficiency (1.5 m long column) decreased and ammonia concentration in the effluent increased again. The best performance was achieved at a hydraulic loading rate of 35.7 L/m2/d, with an average ammonia concentration of 285.5 (±9.1) mg N/L.

 
Keyword(s): AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION, BIOMASS ASSIMILATION, DE-NITRIFICATION, NITRIFICATION,UREA
 
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