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Paper Information

Journal:   STUDIES IN LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION (JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES OF SHIRAZ UNIVERSITY)   SPRING-SUMMER 2009 , Volume 1 , Number 1 (56-2); Page(s) 49 To 64.
 
Paper: 

ORGANIZATIONAL JOB STRESS SURVEY AMONG PHYSICAL EDUCATION MANAGERS

 
 
Author(s):  CHAHARDAH CHERIK M., RAHIMI ESKANDAR
 
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Abstract: 

Introduction: Job Stress is the psychological and physical state that results when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressure of the situation. Level of job stress can affect both individuals and organizations.
In the field of physical education some researchers pointed to job dimensions and needs of physical education managers' duties and responsibilities particularly regarding athletes. Greenberg (1993) believed that the following items increase job stress: an increase in heads' responsibilities, the nature of changing, advanced and new sports and the necessity of athlete's preparation programs for competitions. Vealey, Urdy, Zimmerman, & Solidy (1992) reported some physical education managers contrary to an increase in their role and duties, have pressure of coordination among duties and variation and time. Barry, Copeland, & Scottkrich (1995) conducted research on 108 physical education heads. The result was that there is an equal amount of job stress among the managers, and one of the common stress factors is the stress of having to earn a living. Asadi (2002) noted seven major factors of job stress among physical education organization managers in Iran .These factors, ranking in accordance to their intensity were: bounce, development of human resources, organizational structure, and work trend, minimum use of power, cooperation and management method.
Method: Sample and Data Collection The population for the study was all 135 physical education male managers from different organizations across the Fars province in Iran. Of the 135 surveys sent to managers 115 completed replies were returned. Their mean age was 42.1yr (SD=7.8). 94% of them were married, and 6% were single. Their educational qualifications ranged from diplomas to university or college graduation. The mean of all the years of service since the beginning of their job was 21.1 yr (SD=7.8) and the mean of records of service in the present job as manager was 11.4 yr (SD=8.1).
Questionnaires were mailed to all male physical education managers with covering letter that explained the rationale and procedures. Respondents were asked to complete the survey to rate the amount of stress associated with each event. Anonymity was guaranteed.
Instrument: Spiel Berger and Wagg (1994) Job Stress Survey was used to assess job stress. The Job Stress Survey was developed "[to] assess generic sources of occupational stress encountered by men and women in a variety of work settings." The JSS considers two dimensions of occupational stress: severity and frequency. Respondents rate the severity of 30 common workplace stressors on a 9-point scale by comparing each stressor to an event perceived as producing an average amount of stress (i.e., "assignment of disagreeable duties"), which has been assigned the midpoint value of 5. Then, respondents report on a scale of 0 to 9+ days how often each stressor has occurred in the past 6 months.
Twenty JSS items constitute the two main factors (1). Job pressure, including ten items mainly related to organizational work and (2). Lack of organizational support, including ten items related to working environment and leadership. These factors can then be analyzed on three different levels: severity, frequency and a severity* frequency index. Cronbach's alphas for severity and frequency of job pressure were 0.72 and 0.62, respectively, whereas Cronbach's alphas for the severity and frequency of lack of support were 0.72 and 0.84, respectively. Cronbach's alphas for severity of job pressure and lack of support were 0.72 for both and for frequency of job pressure and lack of support were 0.67 and 0.68, respectively.
Results: Means and standard deviations for perceived Severity and Frequency of items are reported in Table 1. The items are listed in descending order of mean Severity scores. It is interesting to note that the item assignment of disagreeable duties, the standard on the basis of which the perceived Severity of the other 29 items was rated, was ranked 13th on severity by these samples. Being about middle of these items (13 of 30) provides additional evidence that this item was about "average" in perceived Severity compared to the other items. Also the same four items were rated highest on perceived severity and frequency. For both Severity and Frequency inadequate salary (M=8.3 and 8.1) and meeting deadlines (M=7.4 and 8.13) were rated highest. Insufficient personal time (M=1.57) was ranked lowest in severity, furthermore, noisy network area (M=2.l8) was ranked lowest in frequency. The mean score of frequency is significantly (p<0.0001) higher than severity. To determine significant differences in correlation between severity and frequency of job stress Pearson correlation was used. Results indicated negative significant relationship between severity and frequency of job stress (P< 0.002). By assessing the degree of association between each pair of variables among the participants, lack of organizational support contributed to higher variability of job stress than job pressure did.
Discussion and Conclusion: The purpose of this study was to explore the job stress among physical education managers of Fars province. This study indicated that these managers are stressed due to many items such as inadequate salary, poor or inadequate supervision. This is, because salaries of physical education managers in Iran are under paid as they have to have second job or overwork. Also lack of organizational support accounted for more variability on job stress than did job pressure. That is, for managers who participated in the study, lack of support from their supervisors, their peers, and the organizations that they worked. Furthermore Dealing with crisis situation, conflict with other departments and critical, on the spot decisions in the workplace have resulted in higher role conflict and role ambiguity among managers. Role ambiguity happens when an employee is uncertain of what type of job behavior he needs to perform in a given work situation. These findings require organizations to ensure that an employee's role in an organization is clearly defined and understood, and clear and non-conflicting expectations are placed upon the employee. This is especially true in a high uncertainty avoidance country like Iran where ambiguity is highly stressful.
Results showed that participants exhibited high level of job stress. So as physical education managers' position is stressful, sufficient attention should be paid to the above items in order to have a better organizational environment and reduce job stress.
We hope that physical education authorities can utilize the results of this study and the results can playa small role in making organizations environment better and respecting the dignity of human resources in organizations.

 
Keyword(s): JOB STRESS, JOB PRESSURE, LACK OF SUPPORT BY SUPERVISOR
 
References: 
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