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Paper Information

Journal:   IRAN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH JOURNAL   SPRING-SUMMER 2006 , Volume 3 , Number 1-2; Page(s) 19 To 22.
 
Paper: 

BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF PAPER CURRENCY IN IRAN DURING 2005

 
 
Author(s):  SEDIGHI B., SHOJAEI ARANI A.A.F., AMIR MOZAFARI N., TAHERI A.
 
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Abstract: 

Backgrand and Aims: Paper currencies are widely exchanged for receiving goods and services throughout our country as well as rest of the world. Money bills are used everywhere and in all capacities, and are being exchanged among a lot of people during the period of their circulation. If some of these bills are infected with pathogenic bacteria, there will be a potential hazard for the well-being and health of those who handle them. Contaminated money bills are potentially very dangerous to the health of humans. The aim of this research is to specify the bacterial load of various types of collected bills from different regions in Iran.
Method: This research is a descriptive, cross- sectional study. At first, 400 different paper currencies from various provinces in Iran were collected. Banknotes were put into the bottles containing sterile water and then heated for 12-24 hours at the temperature of 37
°C. Afterwards, the banknotes were removed by a sterile forceps and the remaining solution was incubated. The separated microbes were identified by using microbiologic methods.
Results: Data analysis revealed that 46% of different types of paper currency were contaminated with Gram positive and 54% with Gram negative bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gram positive cocci in particular Staphylococcus aureus were the most separated bacteria, which are known as pathogens in various diseases in human body.
Conclusion: These bacteria cause serious illnesses particularly in elder people, children and specifically immuno-deficient patients. We concluded that paper money in this study was contaminated. Replacement of money bills with credit/ debit cards may reduce the potential hazards substantially.

 
Keyword(s): PAPER CURRENCY, BACTERIAL INFECTION, MONEY INFECTION
 
References: 
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