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Paper Information

Journal:   IRANIAN JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES   2007 , Volume 60 , Number 2; Page(s) 665 To 682.
 
Paper: 

COMPARISON OF DEPENDENCE RATE OF PLANNED AND VOLUNTEERED SETTELED NOMADS ON RANGE IN RAINY AND DRY YEARS

 
 
Author(s):  HABIBIAN S.H.*, MEHRABI A.A., ARZANI HOSSEIN
 
* FARS RESEARCH CENTER FOR AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, I.R. IRAN
 
Abstract: 
Rangelands in Iran are utilized for grazing in three ways: nomadic, semi-nomadic and rural. Each utilization type puts its effects on the rangelands. Increase in the number of livestock-raiser and their animals, decrease in the per capita area of rangelands and consequently decrease in livestock-raisers' income, on the one hand, and the exhaustion of rangelands, on the other hand, has damaged the balance between the animal, rangeland and human. As the result of this imbalance, rangelands no longer meet needs of nomadic livestock to forage. The Nomads' Organization Plan and subsequent plans for the settlement of nomads were set in motion since the last decade. These plans are aimed at encouraging nomads to stop migration and settle in certain areas in order to improve their living conditions. In this research, 13 nomadic communities organized in three groups, including spontaneous nomadic settlements, planned nomadic settlements and migrating nomads, in four zones of Fars Province, were studied. Regarding the role and importance of rangelands in providing forage for the nomads' livestock, this research was carried out in 2001 and 2002 in order to compare the livestock's dependence on the forage obtained from rangelands and from other resources in both rainy seasons and in drought, in winter and summer temporary settlements. For this reason, based on the researches conducted in the past and field studies, as well as distributing questionnaires and making interviews, required information was collected and classified and was later analyzed statistically using statistical software products. The research show a significant difference among the three groups of the nomads – spontaneously settled nomads, the nomads settled according to plans, and still-migrating nomads – in their dependence on rangelands and other resources for forage during drought and rainy seasons. Furthermore, this research proves that despite the exhaustion of rangelands, nomads are still highly dependent on rangelands for providing forage for their livestock and it seems this need has caused the persistence of traditional nomadic mode of life.
 
Keyword(s): NOMADS, SETTELEMENT, LIVESTOCK, RANGELAND, RANGELAND, IRAN FARS, DROUGHT, RAINY, MIGRATION
 
References: 
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