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Paper Information

Journal:   CELL JOURNAL (YAKHTEH)   2008 , Volume 10 , Number SUPPLEMENT 1; Page(s) 25 To 25.
 
Paper: 

DEVELOPMENT OF MALE CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS IN INDIA

 
 
Author(s):  SHARMA R.S.*
 
* INDIAN COUNCIL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, ANSARI NAGAR, NEW DELHI- 110 029
 
Abstract: 

The steadily expanding population in our country is of great concern due to its impact on health and societal dynamics. Contraceptive prevalence rate in our country is 56.3% where as contribution of male to this figure is only 6.2%. One of the main reasons for low contraceptive prevalence rate of male is because of limited choice of contraceptives for male. There are only two methods available for male in the cafeteria of contraception and i.e. condom and vasectomy. Therefore, in order to expand the contraceptive options for male scientists have been experimenting to develop new contraceptive methods. To develop a male contraceptive the current research is directed mainly towards the following: (i) development of anti spermatogenic agents to suppress sperm production; (ii) prevention of sperm maturation; (iii) prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens or rendering these sperm infertile and (iv) prevention of sperm deposition.
Scientists have been experimenting with various steroidal/ non-steroidal regimens to suppress testicular sperm production. One of the main limiting factors in developing male contraceptive regimen is non-availability of a long acting androgen as all anti-spermatogenic agents tested or under testing decreases circulating testosterone levels. Long acting progestogen and long acting androgen would have advantage over an androgen-alone modality as the dose of an androgen required would be much smaller in the combination regimen, thereby decreasing the adverse effects of high steroid load. A number of combination regimens using progestogen or GnRH analogues combined with androgen are undergoing trials. Research work in the field of prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens or rendering these sperm infertile has made significant advances in our country. A copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride now called as RISUG® (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm under Guidance) has undergone extensive testing in animals and at pre clinical level. Efficacy and safety of RISUG® has also been established through Phase-I, Phase-II, limited phase III clinical trials. Phase-III clinical trial is currently going on at four centers in the country which will be extended to six more centers shortly. It is hoped that RISUG would be available in the near future as an indigenously developed injectable intra-vasal male contraceptive. Efforts are also being made to popularize non-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). To increase the acceptability and effectiveness of condom efforts have been made to collect correct specifications required for Indian man. Efforts are also on going to develop new generation condom suites to our population.

 
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